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This board is dedicated to the discussion of history and the other humanities such as philosophy, religion, law, classical artwork, archeology, anthropology, ancient languages, etc. Please use /lit/ for discussions of literature. Threads should be about specific topics, and the creation of "general" threads is discouraged.

For the purpose of determining what is history, please do not start threads about events taking place less than 25 years ago. Historical discussions should be focused on past events, and not their contemporary consequences. Discussion of modern politics, current events, popular culture, or other non-historical topics should be posted elsewhere. General discussions about international culture should go on /int/.

/his/ is not /pol/, and Global Rule #3 is in effect. Do not try to treat this board as /pol/ with dates. Blatant racism and trolling will not be tolerated, and a high level of discourse is expected. History can be examined from many different conflicting viewpoints; please treat other posters with respect and address the content of their post instead of attacking their character.

When discussing history, please reference credible source material, and provide as much supporting information as possible in your posts.

Was justinian really a good emperor or just a pussy-whipped push over?
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the dude literally married an "actress" lmao. rewrote constantines laws so that he could legally marry a fucking prostitute. imagine being emperor, most powerful man in all of europe, and settling down with a literal whore who gave tittyfucks to arabs before you met her. i would make fun of a normal guy for settling with a girl that was formerly a stripper or something, but an EMPEROR? i wish i knew necromancy so i could damn my soul to eternity and use black magic to raise his body from the dead just to make fun of him
Don't know abour you, but I have no respect for emperor, who didn't fought any battle
Daily reminder that this disgusting perv is a good monarch according to christcucks

I miss it like you wouldn't believe
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Your country is destroying itself. All we have to do is wait.
it was kinda based but mostly shit
You weren’t even alive when it existed faggot
I'm reposting my comment, that's fucked of the mods to quietly delete it without any explanation.

It's funny that you describe the situation in Ukraine as that, seeing as the people who actually live there don't at all. In fact, they view themselves as victims of a US-backed coup in 2014. They see themselves as an unwitting NATO colony, with no control over their own government. They view every single member of their government as hand-picked by the US intelligence community, just like it is in Haiti.

The US regime is so unpopular there that eight years later people are still fighting in Donetsk and Luhansk to reclaim their country. Regular people are willing to be bombed on the daily, and fight alongside the Russians.

Also, lol at the seething "free thinkers" in this thread, mindlessly parroting the red scare talking points that the state trained them from birth to regurgitate. Never seeing the forest through the trees, never realizing that they are actively protecting the ultra-wealthy and the intelligence community. That they are doing exactly what the bourgeoisie wants.
>become fascist like China
This rightoid mental gymnastic will nevet not be funny

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Why were chemical weapons not used in WW2?

Like when Paris, Moscow or Berlin were about to fall you'd think they'd just go 'fuck it, let's win us a few hours' and launch them.
All the soldiers of every army carried gas masks with them, but they were never employed.
Only Italy used them against Ethiopia and Japan against China.
This is common knowledge.
Hitler and the Nazis knew the British possessed far superior chemical weapons and contrary to popular belief the Nazis did actually want to appear to be abiding by the Geneva convention while simultaneously making it look like the allies weren’t (research the commando order).
If Hitler started dropping gas on London the British would have dropped their own chemicals that would kill scores upon scores of German civilians, and there would be nothing the Germans could do to counter this.

Did they look down on Anglo-Saxons ?
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What would a Danish/Norwegian england look like?
Latin people look down on Germanic people, such is life
Latinos looked down upon German Americans.
More aryan like north east england is now
What do you mean by “imposing their culture”?
The Normans never forced commoners to speak French, in fact it was the other way around: lords had to learn some English to communicate with their serfs.

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Where did it all go so wrong /his/?
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Argentina was doing great, but the problem is the culture.

Latin Americans don't like work (I think this is a thing in the Iberian/Catholic culture in general). The politicians will have all the incentive to promise welfare to the population, ally with labor unions and fuck with the economy to have the power.

The only country where something different happened is Chile, where Pinochet dismantled all welfare programs and reformed the social security system. Chile grew and was almost becoming a 1st world country until now when the people were revolting again to have their welfare back (the same cultural issue).
While their chance at greatness ended in the combo of Roca–Runciman Treaty+Peron, they could still have ended up the wealthiest latin american country and Southern european tier up until the dictatorships of the 70s.

Argentina was still wealthier than Spain until the 1960s, and while it would always be at the disadvantage of being isolated for major markets, I feel like it could still end up being confortably Portugal-Greece tier, rather than the complete mess that it is today.
>Catholic majority
I share this board with muppets.
>capitalism exists in agrarian countries if land exploitation is done capitalistically
But that's not the case in Latam.
Land was regressively distributed in the mid-19th, which led to big haciendas and latifundias getting even bigger.
The region's campesinos have struggled with land access ever since.

And big land plots are inherently less efficient than family, small household farming. (per hectare).

Latam has a producitivty issue, but it's hard to be productive when you are a farmer living in a semi-feudal state.
>They all got napoleon code court system vs common law
LIterally everyone but the anglos have civil systems based on napoleonic law. The shitty justice system is a result of bad governance, and a semi-feudal society more than it is about which system they used.

A legal framework is just that, a framework, unless they decide to take it seriously.

>Their economy is built on extracting resources. This obviously doesn't build up value only takes it out of the ground and ships it off to Europe and America and east Asia.
Extraction of resources doesn't necessarily have to be bad. In many places of the world, mining, and resource extraction bring a lot of national wealth. The issue is that in Latam, all of the mining and extraction is in the hands of a couple of elites, or foreign investors. The people never see any of this.

>Many Latin countries are famous for having laid back attitude of not changing things which obviously means things never change. They cosntsntlntly get in their own way and make things not function right. So things stay bad and never really improve.
Except everytime they try to change anything, their national military takes control onbehalf of the elites, and restores the old system. Many times with support from US capitalists.
After the Guatemalan Land reforms of the 1950s, the US led a coup which led to a 40 year genocide. The people fought, but the genoicdal government had all the money and weapons the US was willing to give them.

>Every country is basically in charge of their own destiny to a large degree. If you stay shifty you have nothing to blame except your own citizens and their own leaders. At that goes for everybody.
I agree to an extend. But the US has also been a force for war, chaos, and genocide.

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>Not pagan
Rome for the majority of its 2000+ year existence was Christian.
>Not roman
Literally the Roman Empire that unfortunately lost much of its territory but existed throughout the entired middle ages outlasting basically everyone.
>Not based in rome
When the split happened WRE administration was moved to Ravenna anyway and Constantinople was becoming the new Roman capital outlasting the old one.
>Doesn't even speak latin
They did while not as strictly as Romans pre 6th century.
>Doesn't have ancient roman tenacity
How many unsuccessful sieges of Constantinople have there been?
>Doesn't have ancient roman virtue
I don't know what this is even supposed to mean.
>Doesn't have ancient roman loyalty
Nigger Rome fought more civil wars than wars against foreign forces. If anything the ERE was keeping the civil war tradition alive.
>gets BTFO by Persians>recovers a bit
They decisively defeated the Persians in multiple wars and took way more land (almost all of Armenia) then the original Roman Empire during their own wars in the last centuries

>gets BTFO by Lombards>recovers a bit
Who cares about the wastelands of Shitaly. All that matters was Rome, Ravenna, Naples, and the apulian coastal cities and those were successfully defended for many centuries

>gets BTFO by Arabs>recovers a bit
They destroyed all the jihadi border emirates and annexed the mountains all the way to Northern Syria. The Eastern Romans could have easily annexed Syria and Palestine or taken Baghdad, but for what reasons? They wanted a defendable border

>gets BTFO by Bulgars>recovers a bit
You know its not true

>gets BTFO by Normans and Turks gets BTFO by Western Europeans gets BTFO by Turks and really everyone around them
The Roman Empire ended in the 12th century. Afterwards it was a glorified city state
>he Eastern Romans could have easily annexed Syria and Palestine or taken Baghdad, but for what reasons?
lmao the delusions. The byzantines spent decades fighting a tiny emirate in Syria
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Embrace Lombard supremacy

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while it used to be the norm in abrahamic religions for centuries?
they like the pretty art
What if I think it doesn't look pretty?
Nobody cares about your opinion.
You obviously do because you are in my thread. Your ilk also seethes infinitely when talichads blow up another pagan idol.
>destroying ooga booga idols
>razing to the ground an entire building

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I don't even think roman legions looked This identical with the armour
what a retarded pic
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Why would you post that??
>Will anybody compare the Pyramids, or those useless though renowned works of the Greeks, with these aqueducts?"

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They were one of the only ME countries who actually fought for independence, jewish militias kicked out the british and defeated Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan, that were still british and french colonies at that time and their armies led by british officers.
Ashkenazi Jews have more in common with the average European than the average Arab
You what? Most of the population are foreigners
They were mostly first and second generation immigrated westerners

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>Casus Belli: I like your women
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>Casus Belli? Our people settled on your land, which means its ours now.
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>Casus Belli: I'd like to try out our new weapons
>Casus belli: Your dog passed my border
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>Casus Belli: your envoy looked at me funny
>Casus Belli: You bear a vague aesthetic resemblance to people I don't like

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He should be considered among the worst tyrants in history, alongside Hitler, Mao, Stalin, Napoleon. He was a dictator, a colonialist, a murderer. He hated England and English people. He committed war crimes and arguably actual genocide against the English people.

Why do people still pretend that this man was anything less than one of the most despicable tyrants to have ever ruled in Europe? Every statue of him left standing in England should be torn down, his name should be struck from the records of Kings of the country, school children should be taught to loathe him. Why is this not the case?

I will hate Guillaume the Bastard til my dying days for what he did to my people.
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It was a thousand years ago, let it go
Would you tell Jews to forget the Holocaust? Would you tell Africans to forget the trans-atlantic slave trade? If not, then don't tell Englishmen to forget the Harrying of the North and the attempted total destruction of the English nation by Guillaume the Bastard and his lackeys.
if jews can forget the crusades and africans the Bantu expansion then they can forget their buck breaking by le frank
I agree, I still remember that moment when I was just a young boy in my bed reading the new horrible histories book not having been tired enough to sleep yet; it was the stormin' normans one...I still remember the ringing in my ears and the drop of my heart when I got to the end of the timeline synopsis of that year anno domini ten sixty six. Surely I had been thinking, before the reveal that harold would triumph in the end just like in the pixar films I had grown up with finishing with the good guys triumphing over evil; But no. England's pure essense, the same essence of its creation, that anglo saxon one had been coated over with the blanket of FRENCH customs and statecraft that would infest itself into evrey aspect of the english lands and english peoples, heck I have used many French loanwords in writing this paragraph. The world will never see that new original culture of retained anglo-saxon domination of England, instead a mixed, averaged-out, amalgam diluting her unique ways, in a french way no less.

I did not sleep well that night.
I disagree. Applying modern day morality about warfare and conquest to someone from the 11th century is silly. William did not do anything radical for the time period he lived in. He certainly did not commit genocide against the English.

Spain had been forced to cede her position as Europe's superpower in the mid-17th century after the English and Dutch had broken her navy and the French her armies. The Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 finally acknowledged France as the leading polity on the continent. It must be emphasized that Madrid was still very much a great power and far from irrelevant; she still possessed her vast colonial holdings. But with her army and navy weakened, her ability to hold onto an empire spanning three continents was much diminished.

The influx of precious metals from America, the lifeblood of the Spanish economy, was repeatedly disrupted by English and Dutch piracy. Since Spain had little in the way of an entrepreneurial spirit, her trade and industry languished--much of her overseas commerce was carried in foreign boats. Spanish shipping between the mother country and America declined 75% over the course of the century. Spain had to buy nearly all manufactured wares from her Protestant enemies and exported mostly raw materials such as wine, olive oil, wool, and minerals. These were mostly paid for in bullion which meant that Spanish gold and silver ended up Amsterdam and London.

The expulsion of the Moors hurt Spanish industry and agriculture and repeated wars against invincible foes that God had damned as heretics, but who could not be conquered or made to submit to the One True Faith, led to ruinous inflation. Spain's infrastructure and internal communications were appalling; there were few paved roads and hardly any way to transport goods so that coastal towns preferred to buy essential items, even grain, from overseas rather than domestic sources. Inflation combined with huge taxes drove the population into penury. Birthrates plummeted and the population shrank. Spaniards were refusing to marry or have families in increasing numbers; many became monks or nuns or emigrated to the colonies. Madrid alone lost half its population over the century.
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Art and culture joined in the general decay. The age of the great Spanish painters had ended and until Goya there were only second-rate ones. Baroque architecture hit Spain like a storm and rapidly displaced the somber medieval Gothic styles. Spanish baroque came to be known colloquially as "churrigueresca" and a slightly less busy version of it made its way to the colonies and produced some of the New World's loveliest buildings.

Sculpture was a major art form throughout the century, often graphic and unsettling religious imagery such as Jesus's suffering on the Cross or the beheading of John the Baptist. The greatest Spanish sculptor of the age was Pedro de Mena, who produced Virgin Marys, choir stalls, and nudes, the last extremely rare in the art of this incredibly conservative country. Sculpture gradually deteriorated in the late 17th century and became more tacky and designed to appeal to the lowest common denominator.

Theater and literature were far gone in decay by the time of Charles II and no notable authors or playwrights appeared. Spanish intellectual life stagnated, attendance at universities declined, and the Inquisition and Index of Condemned Books continued to effectively wall off any uncomfortable or dangerous ideas; the great intellectual movements of the age were kept out of Spain.

This is mostly right, except for the inquisition part which is bullshit. The inquisition killed like 3000 people in 3 centuries, with most of them being killed in the 1500s. It was not a police state with frequent executions, and it was a lot more civilized than the panic about witches in the rest of Europe (or the future USA with events like those of Salem). Spain was mostly spared from that panic because of how culturally isolated it was, and because the inquisition was always very skeptic about witches actually existing and not being simply mentally ill people.

What is true is:
The population of Spain declined in the 1600s while both England and France increased in population.
This happened because:
-Spain expulsed around 300.000 moors, which also hurt the economy since they were very industrious.
-Emmigration to the Americas, never massive, but 5000 per year is half a million mostly men in a century when Spain had like 7 million people.
-Deaths in war
-10% of the population chose to not breed by becoming priests, monks or nuns (this also hurt the economy, except for some monks, these people don't do any productive work)

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There was no reason for the inquisition to be like a secret police because nobody thought they did anything wrong.
Everything they did was written down, even interrogations, and archived.
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>>Historians have recently begun to question the seriousness of the monarch's health and its effect on his reign, who together with his men, managed to keep the empire intact against the power of Louis XIV, achieved one of the greatest deflations in history, increased the purchasing power in his kingdoms, replenished the public coffers, ended hunger, and brought peace to his war-weary subjects. In some regions such as Catalonia or Southern Italy he is considered to be the best of the best kings.

Kneel to your sovereign /his/
The person of the sovereign embodied Spain's general deterioration. Charles II succeeded his father in 1665 at just 4 years old, so his mother Queen Mariana acted as regent but real power lay in the hands of her confessor Johannes Nithard and then her lover Fernando Valenzuela. Charles began ruling in his own right when he was 16, yet could barely dress or feed himself. Extreme Habsburg inbreeding had finally caught up to produce a congenitally deformed and mentally retarded king. His huge jaw made it hard for him to open his mouth; he had difficulty eating or speaking coherently.

Charles received only a minimal education as his mental faculties could not handle much more than learning to read a few basic phrases. He adhered to the Catholic faith devoutly and without question. The king himself was sure the Devil had possessed him and caused his deformities. Despite two marriages, including to the beautiful niece of Louis XIV, it was obvious that he was sterile and could not produce a heir.

Growing anarchy and economic collapse overtook Spain. Earthquakes, famines, and epidemics struck the land. Government officials were shiftless and lazy. Crime exploded as desperate peasants took to robbery and banditry. A vast army of homeless beggars filled the streets of Madrid. Police went unpaid as there was nothing to pay them with and took to joining the criminals.

Why aren't religious people treated like schizos? All these behaviors for imaginary entities no one has ever seen and that show no sign of existing. Seriously they belong in a mental asylum. When will we cure the world of these nutters?
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I am not a Christian, i am no prude, and your sex-organs are not self-destruct buttons.

If he did not manifest himself, then how could anyone see him if he were mere spirit?
So you agree that Jesus manifested physically, meaning Jesus did return physically, an event that could indeed be considered a physical resurrection.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ was not just the reanimation of a cadaver. That's why they found the tomb empty but the wrappings still there. That's why he showed himself in different forms to his disciples which they did not recognize, and then he vanished. That's why he was able to get behind a locked door in the house the disciples were hiding in in the story you're referring to. After the reurrection Jesus was completely beyond the material constraints of space and time (if he wasn't before). I think his human nature died but his divine one did not and could not be held - I don't know about this part of orthodox theology though.

Only to inspire faith, for if they did not see him they would start doubting him.

Over one hundred RBMK reactors built over the history of the USSR and only one, maybe two serious accidents ever.

Why do people make such a big deal about this shit again?
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Normal reactor containment you find in the west is designed to contain meltdown situations not powerful explosions.
Even the Fukushima accident experienced a containment breach from hydrogen explosions and pressure buildup despite having a strong containment system and overall a much less energetic incident.
The bigger problem for Chernobyl was the instability of the reactor when outside of it's normal operating parameters as well as the design flaws in the active safety system.
When the reactor was taken out of it's safe operating parameters for the shutdown test, it created a Swiss cheese situation where multiple safety failures combined to make a disaster.

Of course it's better to have rugged physical containment systems as modern reactors do, and it's absence at Chernobyl was a result of similar cost cutting decisions that resulted in the other safety deficiencies.
I just don't believe it would make much difference in this scenario.
Damn bro, you don't need to get personal.
Well it seems to me the biggest difference a containment building would have made for Chernobyl was the problem of the nuclear material melting through to the ground and into the river.
That didn't happen in the end though.
Yes, this however doesn't mean that nuclear power is inherently bad.

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