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Does spirituality have an evolutionary advantage?
8 replies omitted. Click here to view.
I know that.
Spirituality is likely a consequence of higher cognition.
Yes, it's hypothesized, hyper active agent detection
"Spirituality" is so vague that I have a hard time believing that anyone should care about it
You’re going to have to be more specific and nail down a definition including behaviors and other characteristics.

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prove me wrong
Looks like a porn scene

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Considering that the Soviets fought for 4 years to liberate Poland from the raping Germans, did they have a right to all Polish females?
yes, but the soldiers waited to dump all of their semen into german women instead
What the Soviets did was amateur compared what French revolutionaries did to their own kind.
>It became customary to drown brigands naked, not merely so that the Revolutionaries could help themselves to the Vendéens’ clothes, but also so that the younger women among them could be raped before death. Drownings spread far beyond Nantes: on 16th December, General Marceau sent a letter to the Revolutionary Minister of War triumphantly announcing, among other victories, that at least 3,000 non-combatant Vendéen women had been drowned at Pont-au-Baux.
> The Revolutionaries were drunk with blood, and could not slaughter their brigand prisoners fast enough—women, children, old people, priests, the sick, the infirm. If the prisoners could not walk fast enough to the killing grounds, they were bayoneted in the stomach and left on the ground to be trampled by other prisoners as they bled to death.
> General Westermann, one of the Revolution’s most celebrated soldiers, noted with satisfaction that he arrived at Laval on December 14 with his cavalry to see piles of cadavers—thousands of them—heaped up on either side of the road. The bodies were not counted; they were simply dumped after the soldiers had a chance of strip them of any valuables (mainly clothes).
> The Revolutionary generals also decided to end the lives of Vendéens who had stayed home during the rebellion or had somehow managed to return home. As early as December 20 soldiers were combing the countryside in search of candidates for extra-judicial executions. Some compared the process to hunting rabbits: none of the prey was armed. They were never guillotined, because these were mere peasants and artisans; there were few onlookers who would be particularly interested in watching them die.
>The Vendéen department of the Revolutionary government issued an official proclamation on 12th Frimaire of Year Two of the Revolution (December 2 1793) promising peace and security to the citizens of the region:

"It is time…for the French to come together as one and the same family. Your people have disappeared; commerce has been annihilated; farming has withered away thanks to this disastrous war. Your delusions have resulted in many evils. You know it. Even so, the National Convention, which is as great as the people it represents, has forgiven and forgotten the past.
"This law is not a fake amnesty. We have come in the name of the National Convention, who put us in charge of executing the law, to bring peace and consolation, speaking the language of clemency and humanity. If the bonds of blood and affection are not entirely broken, if you still love your country, if your return is sincere, our arms are open: let us embrace like brothers."

>In fact, it was a fake amnesty. On January 17 1794, General Turreau set out with two armies of six divisions each on a ‘Crusade of Liberty’ to deal with what remained of the brigands. He ordered his lieutenants to spare nobody: women and children were also to be bayoneted in the stomach if there was the slightest hint of suspicion. Houses, farms, villages and thickets were all to be set on fire. Anything that could burn would have to burn. Soldiers in the ‘Infernal Columns’ of the Crusade had explicit instructions to wipe out every last possible trace of resistance or rebellion.
> Crusaders for Liberty were relatively sparing in their use of the bayonet. Men, women and children were more often shot, or burned alive in their houses. Some of the Crusading soldiers had the idea of lighting ovens, stoking them and baking Vendéen families in them. Babies were not spared; nor were toddlers or small children. The usual practice was to kill babies in front of their mothers, then kill the mothers. Young girls were often drowned, after first being raped. Widows were usually beaten, insulted and drowned. Though there was no established standard procedure.
> Not all brigand corpses were dumped, or left in the ruins of their homes. Many bodies were skinned for their leather. On April 5 1794 at Clisson, General Crouzat’s soldiers burned 150 women alive to extract their fat to use as grease. Though on the whole the soldiers of the Crusade for Liberty were rarely so enterprising: they were well paid, and any profits they made were incidental. The Crusade was expensive: in total as many as 62,000 soldiers took part.
>For all the Crusaders’ systematic efficiency there were numerous unforeseen logistical difficulties with their work. Eventually they had to see about burying the bodies of the brigands who had not been drowned. The sheer mass and quantity of corpses posed a potential health risk to General Turreau’s men. Yet many brigands had survived. As the Revolutionary bureaucrat Marie-Pierre-Adrien Francastel later complained: “There are still 20,000 unslit throats in this miserable province.”
> Eventually the killing ended. On February 17 1795, what was left of the brigands’ leadership signed a peace treaty with the Revolutionary government, which generously allowed Vendéens who had been rendered destitute by the destruction of their property and livelihoods to join the Revolutionary army; though their numbers would be strictly limited and they would be kept under strict watch in case they had any ideas. The brigands’ rebellion never really ended; Revolutionaries were occasionally compelled to take further action, as at Chanzeaux on April 9 1795, when besieged rebels were burned alive in their church. At least their freedom of religion had been officially restored (January 21 1795).
>General Turreau’s career demonstrates how easily a thirst for blood can be harnessed to the pursuit of noble ideals. Despite criticism, and a short prison term, he was eventually rewarded for his leadership during the Crusade for Liberty, and spent eight years as Napoleon’s ambassador to the United States (1803–11). His name is inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, at the top of the 15th column, along with those of other heroes who fought for the principles enshrined in the French Revolution’s original motto: “LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY—OR DEATH”.

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Is this Bosnian Muslim right? Were the Christians protected by the Ottomans?
7 replies omitted. Click here to view.
Then why would the Bosniak mention Serbs? It has no weight its not like franciscans were a majority population threatening the empire.
why wouldn't Muslims protect Christians when the principle of jizya means that Christian citizens are worth 25% more tax to the government than an equivalent Muslim? Any Muslim ruler would have to be a complete fucking idiot to want to hurt any Christians under his rule
Because after you've stolen all their shit, you're taxing 125% of nothing, which is still nothing.
Isn't the directive only for the protection of the monks? Or am I reading it wrong
Because you believe they're polytheists so Allah would rather you kill them than allow them to live

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>mfw you can't make a logically consistent argument against beastiality without being a vegan
7 replies omitted. Click here to view.
appeal to nature, animals eating eachother is natural, fucking isn't
What if I personally don't want to engage in bestiality but don't really care if someone else does it
My argument is that if you do it and I find out I'll kill you
I mean, you're free to fuck goats but I will think you disgusting and possibly wouldn't want to be your friend.
The absolute state of this board

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Berbers are the descendants Horners who assimilated very many Eurasian females from Europe and the Near East. True/False?
58 replies and 26 images omitted. Click here to view.
J men are curly-bearded nigger-liped woolly-haired, built like rhino

R men are effeminate twinks of indeterminate race, built like dachshund

E men are good-looking and straight-haired, built like pitbull
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Blow(J1)obs are renowned for their fat cock-sucking lips.
How autistic do you have to be to attribute a biblical group to a haplogroup?
Chad is R1b. The northern weaklings who lost a war to a handful of R1bs are Jcels.
R1bvlls in Africa are sexually dominating the locals.
East-Central Africans founded it

>Modern humans emerge around 100,000 BC, at the latest
>Recorded history doesn't start until 4,000 BC

What the fuck were those retards doing for so fucking long? How the fuck did they have the same mental capicity as us and not get bored after 10,000 years of not-writing, let alone almost 100,000 years.

It fucking pisses me off to see how long humanity had the possibility to be recording history but didn't.
39 replies and 5 images omitted. Click here to view.
>You can't sufficiently control the population.
I'm asking you to provide historical reasoning referencing the specific civilizations I talked about, not to give me a broad platitude.
>Look up what a hydraulic civilisation is.
I know what they are, and see the above.
>When you centralise early
What do you mean by centralizing early? Rome stood for 7 centuries before it became the Empire, and even then the Principate was very different from the Tetrachy.
>you develop authoritarian, extractive priestly and ruler castes that control the population. This is the defining characteristic of nearly all near-eastern states in prehistory.
I assume by "prehistory" you mean the early historical record, because early near-eastern states were city states, not contiguous nations.
>This succeeds initially because control of the population allows for greater resource extraction, greater resource extraction allows for formation of armies, formation of armies allows for capture of more territory and the process continues.
Early near-eastern states were city-states. Empires would not develop for a thousand years after the formation of Sumer. Egypt in this period was the exception, not the rule.
>The problem is it leads to extreme inequality
Is this not true for feudal societies?
>positions of power select for incapable people.
How so? And see above.
>Europeans were not advanced in prehistory because they lived in sparse, cold landscapes where it was extremely difficult to centralise and rule over large groups.
Actually, we don't know if prehistorical Europeans were centralized or not, because as the name implies, they didn't have a written word to let us know. We can infer that there was some organization at the time of the Tollense valley battle (in the 13th century BC), but we have no way of knowing the nature of it.
>As a result they developed the combination of horse, wheel, dairy and bronze
None of these other than dairy would have started in the region of Europe we're talking about.
>resulting in the development of small, martial aristocratic warbands
You haven't provided the casual link between diary and this.
>the creation of truthful testimony (military reporting) as a norm
This is quite ridiculous against any consideration of Roman history, and see the above.
>sovereignty and reciprocity, heroism and duty, excellence and beauty, as a group strategy
See the above.
>and metalworking and martial conquest as the high ranking positions
Engineers and generals were valued by most empires.
>The Smith and the Demon. The Faust Myth. These are our founding mythos. With cunning and technology we can outwit the dark forces of man, gods, demons, and nature.

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surviving and proliferating their genes.
Wow you seriously didn't read up on anything did you nigger?
While a lot of history is lost here's the gist of it since I actually did bother to read:
>100000-70000: Modern humans in Africa are worshipping snake Gods in small caves. Only cave paintings and cooking exist as anything close to culture and an abstract snake statue that was most likely just a natural formation they used as an outlet. Everyone either dies as small tribes or are nomadic at this stage.
>30000-20000 Humans start creating the first few statues, flutes/instruments, weaponry, and so on.
>15000 We migrate to the America's, these are the last stages of nomadic culture. Civilization is advanced enough to have consistent art and inventions, and even global culture, but not enough to cement itself.
>10000 The gradual end of nomadic movement and humanity is forced to move less and less, at this point society has the capability of creating structures like Gobekli Tepe. No written language however.
>7000-5000 Mostly cave settlements and a few cities doing not much beyond a few arts and crafts projects here and there. Human beings have quite the knack for creating and then just leaving settlements.
>3500 At this point we were somehow lucky enough to have settlements that developed written language.
I cannot emphasize this enough, books are the most inferior form of art but they are the most important form. Without it we would not have entered the rapidly evolving modern era of 3500bc to modern day. Visual language is one thing, it takes very high iq to interpret, a book is so simple that Mcgrugly Grugbergembe can write down his entire philosophy in words and a 4 year old can properly comprehend it if written well enough. Socrates was unironically right by saying writing killed all nuance but it also sent the human race into a new era.
Now if you're going to ask "Why did it take so long to do this?"
Keep in mind it takes a long long time to be able to mass produce efficient knowledgeability and distribute it among the known world.
Basically imagine you were forced to build the printer without an instruction book. You can get all the pieces but good luck getting it put together without a fundamental knowledge on engineering.
This is why the least developed peoples history and mythos are primarily verbal. It took eons to create the written language and it was only then that history could really start, as more or less pathetic as language may seem now compared to everything else they did.

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imagine being an ancient steppe pajeet invading europe and seeing these people
15 replies and 2 images omitted. Click here to view.
That being said, if you want the Seima-Turbino guy in his pic to be N1c then that is up to you :)
N1c Seima-Turbino will likely turn out to be more like Yamna and Steppe Maykop, I'm afraid.
That's still ignoring all the obvious R1a in Seima-Turbino though

Also I am wondering if this information affects your Ukraine Mesolithic/Cucuteni-Trypillian theory
left looks like some model, very pretty features if he was an adult and grew up well.
There's many subclades of N1c involved so everything is possibe. One of them was probably EHG-rich before mixing with EEF-rich, while another one was more like RUS_Lola.
I guess we can pinpoint the origin of the EEF maternal ancestry through tracking maternal lines like H1a, which is the one that many Tarands and Hiitolans had.
Still, I can't really see where else it would come from except that Zhizhitskaya-land with connections to Balkan farmers.

We all read the Book of Revelations and how there will be a battle of Armageddon where Christ will defeat Satan, the sinners will be sent to a lake of fire and the rightous to the kingdom of God etc.

My question is, what would happen in Satan won instead?

Yes, I know that it is theologically impossible, but he also must have an end game. Would creation just be destroyed? Would everything become hell or something like that?
>but he also must have an end game.
He's lashing out, taking what souls he can to suffer with him.
The victory is already won.
So actually Satan doesn't want to win, he just fights to lose and take people to Hell with him? I that case, wouldn't he truly defeated only if God granted access to heaven to everyone? Because now it seems like Satan gets his wish.
Satan is the biggest petty bitch there is, the platonic form of pettines. Even if he would damn every single human person, and every single angel he would still be utterly miserable looser because separating yourself from the very source of goodness AND spending rest of eternity with people who hate themselves and you (and vice versa) is not a win in any sense.
Such is hell.

As for God granting access to heaven to everyone - He did. And some people look at open Hevenly Gate, no strings attached, and in stead of endless joy freely choose to go to Hell and lock door behind them, throwing the key away.

As for Satan's endgame - he doesn't have one. Or rather he doesn't but that does not stops him from pretending that he does. Sin darkens intelect, and his was the greatest of created ones. He is utterly delusional and somewhere deep deep down he knows it's pointless but he is too far gone
take meds

Italian fascism prior to 1938 was NOT the same as National socialism. After 1938, Mussolini transformed the Italian fascist movement into a racial supremacist anti-Jewish ideology. The original fascism prior to 1938 was not a racialist movement, with Jewish members and there was a famous Italian fascist song talking about Assayian girls with black shirts in Rome.
Ok, so?
>Italian fascism prior to 1938 was NOT the same as National socialism
Neither was it after 1938.
Didn't Mussolini find the Aryanist bullshit embarrassing or even insulting right up to the end? There's that famous quote about Hitler "ruining what we started"

I haven't got a single clue as to what Italian Fascists had to say about the Jews.

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What exactly is "left-right political spectrum"? Humans hold contradictory views all the time. It's almost impossible to be ideologically coherent to any dogma. Using terminology from the Estates General of 1789 feels like we haven't evolved that much as a society since 1789. We lump all people up into one group and claim this is what they believe, when in reality it's much more complex with people holding contradictory or changing views based off the time and conditions.
left: rousseau
right: hobbes

The left believe humans are essentially good, that most evil is due to social constructs, the first person to hammer in a fence post and declare "this land is mine".

The right believe humans are essentially flawed, that we would kill on a whim like Cain and Abel if it weren't for a lifetime of being infused with morals.
there's a jonathan haidt lecture on the left right brain based on psychometric studies, it's quite an eye opener
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It's not like people haven't tried, but the models become less useful the more complex they are. And people of different opinion will also hold different opinions concerning which model is right, so don't even try. The single dimension right-left model is accepted enough and clusters people well enough to be useful, and that's all it needs to be.

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Why didn't they just give the Greek alphabet to the Slavs?
Out of respect for their culture, the Orthodox Church never cared to homogenize different cultures or impose Hellenism to them. Slavs repaid them with pan-Slavism a few centuries later.
The thought of applying the same alphabet to different languages didn't quite take hold back then.
Hence why you had Greek, Latin, Coptic, Glagolitic, Cyrillic and so on. An A is an A, if you want to use it for Ai, you're gonna make a different symbol.

At least that's my take on it, I'm just a language nerd, not someone into Byzantine christianisation practices.
They did, the slavs fiddled with it and Cyrillic was born.
It was literally the opposite. The Glagolitic script looked nothing like the Greek alphabet, and was mostly inspired by Georgian, Armenian, Hebrew and Arabic writing systems. It was only later that St. Clement simplified it and made it look much more like the Greek alphabet.
Because the sounds wouldn't map right. Some sounds in Slavic languages don't really exist in Greek.

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What are your favorite books on the October Revolution?
1 reply omitted. Click here to view.
How to fish in 12 easy lessons.
Why do people even call the October Revolution a revolution? It was a coup, pure and simple. The February Revolution was the only real revolution.
Thanks, I will try it.
Now what's the worst/most pozzed book?
any books by Lenin on the revolution?
Trotsky is a pretty kino look on the Bolsheviks

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>Ugh, what could've been....

Post some more off the beaten path empires and state peaks.
Not invited: Mongols, Brits, Rome, the usual suspects.
Invited: People you never heard of.
The idea that a glorified corporation run by businessmen and bankers in a picturesque Northern Italian coastal city ran an empire with territory as far-flung as the exotic and mysterious Black Sea is really cool. Would love an autistically in-depth strategy game where you play as Genoa and manage your maritime trading-post empire.
>finds a direct path to India
Nothing personnel, dagos
>Turks fight centuries to become the new empire in the east
>5 minutes after they manage to do it, the main source of wealth for that empire is cut off by sailing innovations and discoveries

Oh Allah, why you punish your sons like that....
>Would love an autistically in-depth strategy game where you play as Genoa and manage your maritime trading-post empire.
That sounds pretty interesting, too. As long as there are other city-states to play as.
Imagine a 21st century, nuclear armed and space faring Cossack Hetmanate

How important is ethnic/cultural homogeneity in the longevity of a polity?
1 reply omitted. Click here to view.
Not really. The multi-ethnic Austrian/Austro-Hungarian Empire lasted far longer than the ethnically homogeneous German Empire.
Cultures dictate what levels of class there are though
Very. Competition between groups will always result in conflict, and proximity to inequality deriving from different abilities will always result in lower trust.
>No such thing
If there was no such thing Ethnic groups wouldn't exist, and voluntarily choose to associate with each other in virtually every area of life.

>All social constructs, and arbitrary.
Everything is a social construct. The periodic table and gravity are social constructs.

>Ethnicity/culture is manufactured in an attempt to divert the focus away from class.
Class is only important because underclass size differs by race.
Rome lasted a long time with minimal ethnic cohesion but with a planned culture assimilation, some small villages lasted far far longer then that just by being homogeneous in both.
Germans don't exist their ethnogenesis was destroying Rome

Societal cohesion improves a nations fitness because it lends itself to solving the issue of identity for a people, which is a nessecery part of the state.

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