[a / b / c / d / e / f / g / gif / h / hr / k / m / o / p / r / s / t / u / v / vg / vm / vmg / vr / vrpg / vst / w / wg] [i / ic] [r9k / s4s / vip / qa] [cm / hm / lgbt / y] [3 / aco / adv / an / bant / biz / cgl / ck / co / diy / fa / fit / gd / hc / his / int / jp / lit / mlp / mu / n / news / out / po / pol / pw / qst / sci / soc / sp / tg / toy / trv / tv / vp / vt / wsg / wsr / x / xs] [Settings] [Search] [Mobile] [Home]
Board
Settings Mobile Home
/his/ - History & Humanities

[Advertise on 4chan]

Name
Options
Subject
Comment
Verification
4chan Pass users can bypass this verification. [Learn More] [Login]
File
  • Please read the Rules and FAQ before posting.

08/21/20New boards added: /vrpg/, /vmg/, /vst/ and /vm/
05/04/17New trial board added: /bant/ - International/Random
10/04/16New board for 4chan Pass users: /vip/ - Very Important Posts
[Hide] [Show All]


Happy 18th Birthday, 4chan!

Janitor acceptance emails will be sent out over the coming weeks. Make sure to check your spam box!


[Advertise on 4chan]

[Catalog] [Archive]

Both swords and spears were widely used throughout antiquity and the middle ages.
Why did certain armies prefer one over the other?
3 replies and 1 image omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12160436
Plenty of armies had spears as primary weapon and swords as secondary.
>>
>>12160436
>Why did certain armies prefer one over the other?
Firstly, Such as?
Secondly, did they really?
I feel like this has to be analized on an individual basis.
>>
File: 857097371_338982964.jpg (1.04 MB, 4077x2958)
1.04 MB
1.04 MB JPG
Sword and spear both are two battle weapons, which are made of specific service. But when someone compares these two weapons, it becomes a bit tough to answer which one is better. In some circumstances, a sword might go well because of its shorter length and easy carrying design.

However, a spear is well known for its better reach and your opponent can be easily defeated even when he is riding on a horse. In this article, we will go through every possible point regarding sword and spear and will try to find out how one of them is better than the other one.
>>
sword is superior metallurgically until you get to the more complex polearms and even then swords just kept going
>>
Yes a good sword is solid metal with some stuff added. The long cutting edge must be designed properly and keep a consistent angle. Its material and heat treatment more important.

A spear is just a stick like a pike or has a small metal head and easier to produce. No heat treatment works as does a rapid heating and quenching. It pokes holes because it is a point and you have to be incompetent to mess up its function.

Spears have range, but are also large and hard to travel with and change direction in formation. Most common length swords are sidearms allowing for doing anything else with your hands until a weapon is needed, but still being readily available.

Armies often used both.
Axe heads and spear heads can be made in small forges more easily than long swords, and then be attached to readily available wood. Swords needed larger forges and more fuel and time to properly produce.

Why did Spanish America break into a million pieces, most of which were smaller than the viceroyalties, but Portuguese America remained united?
>>
Brazil had a monarchy.
>>
>>12162750
Moorberian shitskins can't build a functioning society.
>>
Hispanoamerica was fragmented by revolution and a shitload of local warlords and aristocrats trying to gain/keep power.

Lusoamerica kept itself a little more stable through institutional governamental continuity and defeating local revolutions.

What was his problem? Was he a crypto-muslim? Was he corrupted by the remaining Sicilian muslims?
3 replies omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12162574
He had relations with the Ayyubids before his crusade which is how he was able to gain Jerusalem through negotiation. Contrast this to him treating Outremer and Cyprus like shit. Just look at how he treated his wife Isabella the heiress of Jerusalem.
>>
>>12162566
Because the people of Outremer were retarded opportunistic scumbags, the clergy themselves agreed that they themselves were responsible for the destruction of the Crusader States. It was a hub for the most greedy and troublesome noble families such as the Lusignans.
>>
>>12162623
>opportunistic scumbags
literally just described Frederick
>>
>What was his problem?
He was a King in a time when the Pope wanted to rule the world.
>>
>was called the antichrist by his contemporaries

File: 20211022_231201.jpg (133 KB, 1080x454)
133 KB
133 KB JPG
Are there any other countries that were never conquered?
19 replies omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>Balkanoid shitflinging
>>
>>12162643
>king of serbs because he conquered the serbs in 1377
except in which case he would have dubbed himself king of Serbia not SERBs delusional fucking retard
also
>Tvrtko also adopted the symbolic name Stephen in order to associate himself with the Nemanjić kings; his successors followed suit. Tvrtko, in fact, at times completely omitted his birth name and used only the honorific
>>
>>12162701
literally a catholic croatian from croatian house of kotromanovic
>serb

he conquered serbs of hum, and later to justify his plans of conquering serbia he was legitimizing himself by association with nemanjic

you know all this, and yet you are here and you seethe
>>
>>12162714
Tvrtko quite literally left out his own birth name in favor of Stephen such was the love for his Nemanjic lineage
>he conquered serbs of hum, and later to justify his plans of conquering serbia he was legitimizing himself by association with nemanjic
refuted by svetovid Tvrtko was the king of Serbs not Serbia
cope and seethe croach Kotromanici were a Serbian dynasty and Tvrtko the king of Serbs
>>
>>12162775
>he loved us brooo he conquered us but he loved us so he is a serb lel he's a serb ok
time for bed turk bro

File: Vatican II.jpg (81 KB, 850x567)
81 KB
81 KB JPG
RIP the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church
24 replies and 1 image omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12158114

I don't like the Vatican and the Roman Catholic Church, but what they mainly did was to bring church laity back to a 5th century level of understanding language, as though people still spoke and understood the same Latin used by the church at the time the Western Roman Empire was still extent, and even after that into the 6th and 7th centuries to varying and gradually diminishing extents, until the common population started to have too much trouble understanding the Latin of the church, the laity using the beginnings of modern languages instead. Why do modern ultra-traditionalist Roman Catholics not want to ultimately return to the early Christian tradition of understanding the language used in the church?
>>
>>12158123
retarded revisionist reading. "Protestantization." sorry you don't get your gold thrones anymore and "based Christendom". that was never what it was about though.
>>
>>12162323
I never claimed that. However bringing god to man is retarded, as it should be the other way around which is what the Catholic Church did for most of its history. I personally don’t like some cargo shorts wearing Protestant mega church americhud pastor
>>
>>12162142
I think it's like, oh no I hate modernism(tm) and modernism is anything from when I was born onwards, so obviously ~20 yr old epic tradcaths spouting racial slurs want to go back to whatever they think is not-modernism(tm).
>>
>RIP the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church
>Why yes, I am a youth searching for an identity who just so happened to have recently converted/'rediscovered' my faith. Why do you ask?

The Americans and British built 19 camps in west Germany to house captured German soldiers.

Was this brutal? Are the allies hypocrites? Redpill me.
7 replies omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12159229
Those Kr*uts deserved much worse.
>>
>>12159229
>>12162253
Gonna sneed and cope? Dilate maybe?
>>
Win the war yourself next time if you want revenge. Getting saved by big daddy murrica doesn't count.
>>
>>12159229
Well, what else were they going to do with surrendering troops?

You can't let them go, or they're likely to return to the battlefield and fight you again. And you can't recruit them into your own army because they're likely to betray you as spies and saboteurs. And you can't just execute them, because that's a war crime.

Keeping prisoners of war incarcerated until the end of the war (or until they're ransomed back in a prisoner exchange) has been common practice since the middle ages.
>>
Should have fire bombed the camps. Fuc the germans.

>muh heritability
Almost no trait is heritable. Heritability is just genetic disorders, everyone talking about genetics is an autistic retard and your studies are autism.
Height is just obesity at age ten. Iq is drug use or whatever. There are other traits like income that are heritable, that cause this correlation, and twin studies are useless because by the time you're adopted all these factors matter.
It's easy to find these environmental factors and correlate them with any trait, even in an experimental way (eg duration of drug use affects fractional anisotropy and autism), you're just a lazy retard saying something is "80% heritable" because you didn't read.
14 replies omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12162102
also im trans and take pozzed loads every day
if you say otherwise you're jidf
also gdp = coal
>>
>>12162216
Ahy would JIDF give a fuck about tourism and Stalingrad? Kill yourself you mentally ill faggot
>>
>>12162102
so why dont black africans give birth to Swedish looking people if heritability is random?
>>
>>12162626
Because melanin is one of the few traits that is heritable.
A better question is why there's no one with white skin and no genetic disorders, and negroid features, because only melanin is heritable.
>>
>>12162146
was your comment also genetically heritable?

File: Europe-UK.svg.png (569 KB, 2045x1720)
569 KB
569 KB PNG
How did the UK slowly evolve into a democracy over the centuries while every other European power had to go through some revolution to achieve democracy?
14 replies and 1 image omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12161007
Because common law and capitalism is inherently more democratic than civil law and commerce limited by the monarchy.
>>
>>12161057
Charles I was killed. Charles II restored the throne.
Nobody cares much about the Regicide because Cromwell was basically still a King in all but name. Charles II was also extremely popular and beloved by the people, so the Interegnum was simply seen as a bad few years before the Merry King came back and restored normalcy to the realm.
>>
UK had a revolution very early on, too early to become a full blown republic (due to the nature of how people thought in the 17th century).

It created a system with checks to ensure neither side went too far within the system, creating stability and eventual prosperity.
>>
>>12161007
>slowly
They underwent what the rest of Europe experienced later on first. They became very centralized for a feudal kingdom, then the same centralized structure collapsed a few times because sometimes they had bad kings. Eventually the nobles and the burghers wanted some basic proto-constitutional rights, then the reformation happened and they had revolutions, all that stuff, and so forth.
>>
>>12161490
>Charles II was also extremely popular and beloved by the people
True, but at the same time it's not that hard to become the beloved ruler when you're basically the liberator who came to power after the guy who banned dancing/Christmas/fun in general and enforced his religious dogma with a national network of spies/secret police.

File: 98765434568_c1870.jpg (264 KB, 1274x1600)
264 KB
264 KB JPG
I have noticed that Capitalists/Libertarians/Laissez-Faire advocates and people of that sorts have no clue about what Freedom is. They advocate for some sort of abstract "freedom" but that is not actual freedom, and they seem to not realize this obvious contradiction in their heads.

Many people think that freedom is the concept "I can do whatever I want". So this is "raw" freedom, however this sort of freedom also contains it's exact opposite in it. Because if he can do whatever he wants, then other can do it too, which will limit his freedom to do it. And also his own freedom can be used in such a stupid way to limit it.

So this alone disproves Laissez Faire, because the mere freedom to do something will be used against that freedom eventually. The small businesses that grew out of a Laissez Faire economy, are now multi-national megacorporations which lobby for more regulations to destroy their competitors. The same freedom they grew out from, is now turned against others. So it's funny when Libertarians want to go back to a Laissez Faire economy, not realizing that these megacorporations had funded and created the entire government that is now used to take away that freedom, and if we would somehow reset the system, the same would happen all over again. The first successful business would just become the de-facto government. Ancap versions are even more silly, the businesses there would just become like City-States and obviously prohibit any challenge to their authority.
9 replies and 1 image omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12161637
Some of them just think we need to routinely recycle and start civilization anew. In this way, their system works forever.
>>
>>12162676
>schizoid
>hygiene
His mouth probably smells like death
>>
>>12161637
>society grows decadent
>burn it down and do it again
>etc.
this here, is IT.
>>
>>12162676
Cops disproportionately kill whites controlling for density.
>>
>>12161637
>corporations created the idea of liberty
Well I'll be dipped

File: breeding machine.jpg (294 KB, 1816x1081)
294 KB
294 KB JPG
>tfw the war of Austrian succesion was the straightest woman in the world fighting against the biggest aids ridden faggot cocksucking homosexual ever known in history
7 replies and 2 images omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12162427
Frederick was a loser who was saved because the Russian tsar at the time was a Germaboo otherwise Prussia would have been fucked
>>
>>12162618
many old women are like that though
>>
>>12162622
>invite every fucking heretic and blasphemer in Europe to Sansucki
>proponent of le "greek love" with young servants all over the palace -> sodomite
>start a world war
>god STILL gives him a free pass so Hitler could happen
>>
>>12162635
Shows how much the Jews messed up
>>
>>12162427
Everyone called him a faggot
Also he looks and dresses like a faggot

File: img_4891.jpg (105 KB, 640x1043)
105 KB
105 KB JPG
How powerful were the Dahomey Amazons?
16 replies and 3 images omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12160101
Stanley's infamous expedition paid numerous native Africans an advance sum to accompany them and serve as guides, also arming many. They were the first to desert upon being harassed by tribesmen.

They simply had no reason to stick around and had no loyalty to colonial powers.
>>
>>12161806
Well, in the case of this battle >>12158206 the warriors of Porto-Novo had much better reasons to fight this war than the French did
They were the ones Behanzin wanted to massacre/enslave
>>
>>12157668
The Dahomey Amazons were effectively the sex slaves of the Dahomeyan king, but being a royal sex slave in a primitive African kingdom was a genuine privilege and high station in life. They were his bodyguards, like Qaddaffi's women "special forces". They were very good at massacreing unarmed African tribals and taking them as slaves to sell to whitey, or at killing white sailors and merchants who refused to pay up for their slaves, but as an actual military unit they were, predictably, jokes, that disintegrated the minute uniformed Europeans with rifles appeared.
>>
>>12157692
You have a problem
Please seek help
>>
>>12162662
I support woman's rights and civil rights, but sometimes you just gotta vent about how black women act.

File: Talvisota2041 cropped.jpg (77 KB, 960x540)
77 KB
77 KB JPG
>USSR enters negotiations with Finland regarding exchange of territories
>Paasikivi who drives the talks think it's a good idea and would avert a potential conflict
>Mannerheim, practically the commander of Finnish armes forces thinks it's a good idea because relinqueshed areas couldn't be defended anyway and it would avert a conflict with USSR
>Stalin and Molotov think it's a good idea, both write how it would avert a conflict
>???
>Winter war, Finns lose territory, russkies lose men and nobody wins shit
WHAT THE FUCK HAPPENED? Did democracy just fail and let populists parlament drive Finland into an unwinnable conflict.

>Inb4 Stalin wanted to conquer Finland
Debunked by mainstay Finnish historians and those who specialize on USSR like Kotkin. Also, USSR was free to conquer Finland after the war but never did. Huh....

Why were Africans so primitive?
I will read about African history and find out about interesting civilizations. Like the Yoruba with Ile Ife and Oyo. They made some nice sculptures and had cities…. And I think "finally, an African people that aren’t backward". But then I look at pictures of their "houses" and it’s pathetic. They literally lived in mud huts.
It’s like everytime I find an African tribe that had something interesting going on for itself, EVERYTHING ELSE about them is primitive and ass backward
250 replies and 61 images omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12158775
Arab Colonialism didn't spread all over the globe. European Colonialism has a more significant impact than Arab Colonialism even today. Arab Colonialism has no affect on me whatsoever.
>>
>>12160908
>even today. Arab Colonialism has no affect on me whatsoever.

It does affect me but that's because I live in an area they're currently colonizing (Paris)
>>
>>12161042
Paris is not being colonized.
>>
>>12161095
It is, although the arabic colonists are starting to lose ground to the subsahran ones
>>
>>12146435
Kek

File: albert-einstein-9.jpg (94 KB, 900x750)
94 KB
94 KB JPG
Is there any point in asking this question? I realise it depends on circumstances. If Einstein had been born 10,000 years ago into a family of hunter-gatherers how would not have come up with General Relativity.
18 replies and 3 images omitted. Click here to view.
>>
>>12162125
>>12162298
Newton wasn't even regarded as the smartest guy in England at the time, that was Sir Christopher Wren.
>>
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_von_Neumann

mobile link!

take ur pick. he contributed major works to mordern mathmatics, physics, engineering, laid the foundaiton for computer science

bro did so fuckin much, list is too freakin long
>>
>>12162039
Some dude who did nothing remarkable and died without anyone ever knowing he was the smartest human
>>
File: chrislangan.jpg (352 KB, 1300x1037)
352 KB
352 KB JPG
Easy
>>
File: 1602132177737.jpg (83 KB, 788x685)
83 KB
83 KB JPG
>>12162039
me

File: 1628003170938.jpg (766 KB, 1400x991)
766 KB
766 KB JPG
Europe in 1444. Look at Central Europe.
38 replies and 9 images omitted. Click here to view.
>>
File: 3a7 (1).jpg (81 KB, 680x680)
81 KB
81 KB JPG
>>12162293
>fr*nch islam bootlicker
>>
File: Capture.png (705 KB, 573x443)
705 KB
705 KB PNG
>NOGAY HORDE

KEK
>>
>>12160716
Retard.
>>
File: 888.jpg (138 KB, 699x784)
138 KB
138 KB JPG
>>12160716
Oh no no non no meme informed /his/ trannies, we can still dilate back from this, right???
>>
>>12160716
A united state isn't a good thing you braindead nigger. Decentralization is always a good thing.




Delete Post: [File Only] Style:
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
[Disable Mobile View / Use Desktop Site]

[Enable Mobile View / Use Mobile Site]

All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective parties. Images uploaded are the responsibility of the Poster. Comments are owned by the Poster.