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Are you aware of any archaeological study of wild fire in the United States? I spoke to a forest ranger at the Angeles National Forest about the historic frequency of fire but they had no idea beyond their own written records of fire.

Every time after a big fire event a lot of mud washes down into the local riverbeds. I figure it could show some historical record of fire.
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There are several studies that use deposits of ash in sediment layers that are thousands of years old to come up with a general idea of the frequency of ancient forest fires in the western US, and the consensus was that fires went through periods with far more frequent and severe outbreaks than today and the last 100 years or so fires have actually been on a downslope until the last 10 years or so. The sediment studies establish a 3000+ year old general record. Fires today in the western US are actually still not as frequent and severe as some of the medieval and ancient peaks, though there may be a correlation between warmer temperatures and a temporary increase in fire frequency inferring that the forests go through an adjustment period during warmer eras. One of the studies also saw a correlation between increase in human habitation in the region (European American settlers arriving) and a downturn in fires possibly because of forest management practices and agriculture thinning fuels.
i dont know about your area but i was told by a forester in my area of new mexico/west texas the historical fire averages are something like fires every 5 years and low intensity for the montane forest, every 15 years and medium intensity for the juniper/oak woodlands and every 50 years and high intensity for the desert
Are you familiar with the concept of variables, smoothbrain chud? Humanity introduced a very large one that didn't exist before the Industrial Revolution, and it has only gotten bigger since then.
They didn't put the resources or manpower into fighting them that we do today in the 20s and 30s retard.
>Forest fires have never been this big and common
I think youre the retard, retard. Don't hurt yourself moving those goalposts

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The last 30 times I went fishing I have caught nothing.
I carry a gasoline zippo. It's a meme, it's fucking dumb, it's enitrely impractical and I don't even smoke. The only things I use it for are finishing paracord knots, lighting a jetboil and staring at the flame to calm down. It's less practical than a cricket or even a Zippo with a gas insert, but it feels so cool to flip open and light it that I can't drop it.
Bass, Crappie, Trout. Anything. Not so much as a nibble.
You do know where fish are supposed to be in a body of water right?

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I recently had to drop BRC for certain reasons. What coffee do you guys drink on the trail? I've seen some crystalized coffee that doesn't need filtering, just add water. Do those work? What do you guys drink?
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lurk moar for a few more months and you'll instantly recognize his posting style
I don't. I usually just make tea. Instant coffee is pretty shit.
I think you're an idiot.
former skeptic here. can confirm. welcome to hell.
I drink whatever is cheapest at my local grocery store at the time I'm doing my shopping. On the rare occasion I'm up in northern Wisconsin I try to find ARCO brand norsemans grog. It's a little bit over flavored, but it's a nice rare treat.

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These little cunts need to be exterminated!
I slept one night in the tent and carefully checked for ticks before going to sleep. After I left the tent once to take a leak during the night, I woke up with 7 of these fuckers! SEVEN!
How do I deal with these disease carrying abominations?
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Embrace the ticks
next time cover yourself in piss
>just remove them bro
It's already too late once they bite you, idiot.
you should stay home then
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>It kills cats tho so don’t use if you have a kitteh.
thanks for the warning

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Question: I'm downloading USGS Topo maps. I'm trying to learn MGRS and I read something on the USGS website that said MGRS can be selected as the reference system. Does the USGS Topo maps come in MGRS or USGN?

The next post will be a guide on how to download topo maps from USGS.

Also /map/ general.
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Do you want high-quality, reliable, and accurate topo maps for the United States? The USGS provides them for free.

How to download USGS topo maps for the United States for free:
1. Go to https://apps.nationalmap.gov/downloader/
2. Under the "Map" section, click the "US Topo" checkbox
3. A box will appear. The default options are what you want.
4. Go to the "Area of Interest" section at the top of the UI, next to a row of grey buttons.
5. Make sure "Map Extent/Geometry" is selected in dropdown in the first grey button.
6. Click the "Extent" button.
7. Click and drag where you want some maps.
8. Click the blue "Search Products" button. The UI will switch to the "Products" tab.
9. There will be a list of maps for the area you selected. Click the "Download Link (PDF)" link for the maps you want to download.

If you want to download a lot of maps, there's a "TXT" icon at the top that will give you a .txt file with the direct URLs for each of the PDFs in your results. Then you can use something like wget or aria2 to download them.

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/GFG/ - GearFagGeneral #2
Thread to discuss, reccomend, and shit on gear.
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This, each dip and peak in the surface of the rain fly effectively breaks up the wind flow
It's supposed to replace the pad.
You just use a sleeping bag or a blanket, like in a normal bed.
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I want to try one of these
>DLX Avon 3
Are you expecting to blow away to Kansas or something?

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What apps do you guys use to follow trails or mark your own? It seems like the age of the handheld dedicated gps device is over and everyone is using phones.
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mytrails because it offers about 100 different maps
What map XML is that? And do they sell entire state or country topo maps that don't require online connectivity at all?
What map is that and do they have offline maps for the entire usa and each state?
This. Really good in UK. Only problem i've had is some of the trails seem to be missing sections on the map but the trail is obviously still there. It has a lot of features as well, i'm still learning to use them all. The navigation assistant sucks though and it really can't generate a route properly.

I've been looking for a good weather app but can't seem to find one. Either all ad ridden or too niche and cost money/sub.
If anyone can recommend something that would be great. Free, Cracked or ad free is a must.

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Previous thread: >>2038123

SCUBA = Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

Share your most memorable dives here, good and bad.
Post pictures, videos, and memes.
Brag about certs, experience, and achievements.
Discuss/recommend equipment, techniques, and otherwise share your love for diving in general,
Divers of all levels welcome, freedivers, as well as people just thinking about diving.

Feel free to contribute to it either directly or indirectly through the thread.
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Went diving with a larger group few days ago. Visibility wasn't anything to brag about, but it wasn't made any better by everyone else unable to frog kick and kicking up sand everywhere, desperately picking scallops or whatever.

Swam away for a while, lost the group (it was actually kinda freeing), then eventually found them again towards the end by following the least visible path. No one even noticed my absence, lmao.

Was an otherwise okay dive. I'm happy just getting underwater.
If you were listening during your course youd realise holdong while descending is fine.

But as a strategy to be down longer its retarded. You will find that the air wont be your problem once you get halfway decent.

To use less air.

1. Trim. Be flat and tight. Dont flail and use energy. Think torpedo. Just kick, be straight and parallel, dont have gear dragging obviously.

2. Use correct weight do a buoyancy check to get it right. Breath in and get yourself to eye level with the surface. If your bcd has too much air in it remove weight. Dont feel bad about asking for another or giving one back. As different oceans, your wetsuit etc. Will effect this. After you have done a few dives you should be able to figure the weight relatively accurately. Also, before doing the check ensure your wet suit is saturated. If you cant get down saturate wetsuit breath out relax and be straight perpendicular to the floor. Once you have the weight of the water on you it will be easy to descend.

3. Be zen. On the way down when all the retards are fixing their mask, ears or whatever other issue they have you will be concentrating on relaxing and your breathing. Obviously do your ears if you have to ascend a little if they dont.

4. Have the correct wetsuit. You dont want to be cold or hot. I get cold so always get a bit more then their recommendation for the water.

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Study part is a piece of piss. Do it before you leave though so you dont waste holiday time.

Dont do a discovery dive.

Wife probably will be told she shouldnt dive.

I usually just go without my wife. She doesnt have asthma but she is stingy as hell.
by any chance are you diving with freedom divers safaga? one of the finest dive base ive been to. If you are, give Diko and the guys a shout out
Stop kicking up silt you filthy casuals.

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Rock or Ice.....pics and vids if you got em
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I climb enough I don’t need to really worry about building callouses or getting used to rock texture. It’s mainly just to build strength, which is what it’s been doing
Where did that come from? Mad that you're too fat to climb a gym V2? Chill the fuck out and just keep climbing. You'll get there anon.
I like the wood because it makes me have to use tension and not friction to stay on. Most of the rock climbing areas around me get a good amount of traffic and those once rough rock holds on the popular routes now feel like polished marble so being able to know where and how to apply pressure with your fingers is key. Between this wooden hangboard and the wooden tension board at my gym I've seen great improvement in my own climbing
I made mine out of OSB. Double time those calluses
False, will outlive you

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Im in the early stages of planning a winter camping trip for my scout troop that I am now an adult leader in. My biggest problem at this point is actually finding a suitable location, ie, one that is reasonably close to where we are based out of but also has a high probability of having significant snow accumulation and temperatures that stay low over the course of 4 to 6 days.

How do I search for such a location? I have tried looking up average snowfall accumulation data, but nothing jumped out as being particularly useful to me. We are in central Indiana, and in the past we have gone all the way up to northern Michigan but I would prefer to avoid traveling that far if possible.

My overall goal is to try to get as many of the kids to try cold weather camping as possible, especially the younger ones that may not have had much experience with it or even camping in general. To that end, I want to try to make it as approachable as possible, if that makes any sense.

>>tldr: how do I find a campsite/where do I go that is reasonably close to central Indiana that will reliably have deepish snow and low temperatures at a particular time of the year?
Are they expected to bring their own gear?
Why not go where you went in the past in Michigan, a state known to get snowfall over Indiana or really anything closer.
Typically one chooses a spot that they like during other times of the year but is crowed, most everyone fucks off during winter.
Don’t you live in Indiana? Don’t you know what the weather is like every year? It doesn’t really change much. If you want a sure bet, find a place that gets reliable lake effect. I assume NW Indiana gets some sort of lake effect snow off Lake Michigan?
>most everyone fucks off during winter
not true at all in MI
Its true more often than not dude, save for skiiing activities there is pretty much no wilderness areas in the us that gets snow during the winter with higher attendance rates in winter than summer.
And I doubt very much OP wants to camp on a ski slope you disingenuous fuckwit
>Are they expected to bring their own gear?
As much as possible, but between all the adults and older kids and the troops own gear stores we wont have a problem. The troop supplies stoves for cooking and tents, although individuals are welcome to bring their own.

>Why not go where you went in the past in Michigan
I would, but the place we were using is no longer available. It was a scout camp that had more or less been mothballed for a few years, and we basically got the run of the place, including staff cabins and the like if we wanted to use them. It had a lot of really cool things you could do there.

Yeah, the weather is more or less the same every year. I guess I was hoping to find some magical place that consistently gets good snow that would be a little closer, but I've more or less realized that isnt going to happen without lake effect.

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Kajaking in Germany. Two days ago this river was 2m higher and very deadly.
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if your river has whitewater then flood stage kayaking can be very fun but also very dangerous if you have no idea what you're doing
Its fun if you're good. t. Spring flood river runner.
Went down the naab a few days ago. Slow as hell but a beautiful scenery.
the water is still most of the time just picks up in the early spring runoff. my boats a white water yak so im not too concerned about bashing into things. ill post next spring if i end up givin'r

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What are your strengths and weaknesses as a /out/ist?

In good shape so can hike all day

Pretty poor at navigation, I don't even know how to use a compass.
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great eyesight

can't properly intimidate wildlife due to small penis size
Expert with trekking poles, can shit in any body of water or stream that I encounter, can stack rocks like an artist, master Instagram photographer, elite AllTrails navigator, pro batony chop chop

I have none. I am an Elite /out/sman of the highest order
Well disciplined mentally and physically, able to overcome any obstacle I'm faced with, hardy genes I feel best working in cold just above freezing, good at navigation with and without equipment, very knowledgeable about wildlife, hunting, foraging, etc., tall and bear-built in a non-homosexual way, hairy extremities keep me warm, incredibly intelligent
Incredibly good larper, vivid imagination

I literally never go out
Was reading this still while sitting on a hilltop and had a proper laugh.

>small footprint
Why doesn't /out/ have any love for skeletonized knoives?
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if all you need is something sharp and no strength use a swiss army knife.

if you need to do knife stuff like make a fire they're a worthless toy compared to a fixed blade full tang. why pick something thats bad at everything?
Try using one of those for any real work. You just can't grip them properly.
Also, most of them are shit steel, since any proper carbon steel would rust from your sweat, and crack in the skeletonized portions during hardening. While you can work around these problems by plating and using differential hardening methods, those are so expensive barely a manufacturer uses them.
>adding weight and bulk to a knife purchased for the sake of being low in bulk and super light

Why work against yourself?
They’re for flat pack emergency kits and I guess anons like >>2171637 who just don’t like folders. The idea most work from is that even if you wrap the handle, they take up almost no space and weight and fit in a kit that you can stick anywhere and forget about. It’s not a bad deal if you want a perfectly serviceable fixed blade backup that fits in a flat kit you can shove in a cargo pocket. I might get one just to stick in the laptop sleeve in my bag.
Do you realize a skeletonized knife is a full tang knife without scales, right chud?

What the hell are you talking about, you find these types of knives in all kinds of meme steels like m390, s35v, elmax, d2 and so on.

Paracord is essentially weightless.


The Timbs are 220€ but I feel like most of that money is going towards their brand name. Are there any higher quality shoes that a similar to this? I don’t know if it’s Timberland‘s reputation being an established street wear brand, but I feel like you can get away with wearing them much easier. A lot of similar shows just look too traddy/rugged. They are just going to be a fashion shoe but I feel like you guys probably know more about this than /fa/. One thing I’d like to add is that I am not looking for a cheaper shoe, just a shoe that has a bit more craftsmanship and paying a little more wouldn’t bother me
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Imagine outing yourself as a larper, just like that.
>t. niggers
Timbs are a fashion statement, not a hiking/work boot. Vasques are good for hiking and anything with a steel toe is good for labor.
Fuck off nigger, you post this shit in every boot/pack/etc. thread as if this board needs to make more room for faggots posting their camping pictures and asking about bigfoot
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Timbs have two seperate product lines. The normal "Timberland" boots are fashion boots. they are designed for people who want to dress up in boots. Their work brand is "Timberland Pro" and are much cheaper than the plain "Timberland" brand.

When you're buying a boot it helps to know what you're going to be needing it for. Hiking in timbs is kind of retarded, but so is hiking in most work boots. If you're going to be working in a lot of mud or shit or need steel toe, sketchers makes some nice boots that are cheaper. For working around the shop or in light woods I use a pair of old leather clodhopper shoes that look like pic related.

If you're hiking you should get hiking boots.
>They are just going to be a fashion shoe but I feel like you guys probably know more about this than /fa/.
Check it before it's gone.
Tl dr european ankle boots that are not hiking/mountaineering boots are rare. For that specific style, I can suggest a few companies and models, all with proper welt and leather beyond reproach:
-Hanwag Kofel Mid
-Steinkogler Bromberg
-Geiger Schuhe Graz (he does semi-bespoke stuff, waiting time currently one year).
All of these are in the 250-280€ range and it doesn't really get much cheaper. Simpler ankle boots (without lining and cuff) can be had for 150-200€. Ones that are glued, not welted, can be had from varusteleka at 130, and probably quite a few other companies - but who likes glued soles anyway. Yuck.

I’m from a part of the country where this is not socially acceptable and quite frankly cringe. But my wife is obsessed with country music and loves this show Yellowstone and I just lost 30lbs and can fit in normal size flannel shirts without a big gut sticking out anymore. . Am I less of a fag because I bought it to wear on special occasions in an effort to get laid? I’m definitely not single guy wearing it thinking I look cool like a early 2010 fedora fag. I’m socially aware it’s cringe but don’t really care and will wear it anyway.

Also other than fashion what is the point of the cowboy hat anyway? Was it the best hat available at time of inception. I guess my question is do current present day cowboys still wear cowboy hats instead of baseball caps and for what purpose? Shade/less sunburn for entire neck ? Any Texans/Westerners with cowboy hat knowledge? What is the difference between a 30$ and 600$ one
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Works the same way as a boonie
Too hot too work in or anything /out/ related
Letting people know youre a poorfag
Felt = When a westerner/texan/cowboy type of guy goes to a classy event like church service, wedding, funderal

Synthetic = Utilitarian every day cowboy hat

Straw = Poor/bottom of the barrell (natty light of cowboys hats) if you will?

This makes sense since when I go to country concerts I see trashy bitches with straw cowboy hats and Payless Shoe Store 12$ boots.

Didn't realize there was a fashion board sorry
I bought a 300 dollar felt stetson when I was in San Antonio on a business trip as a souvenir. Buy what makes you happy bro.
This is the only real answer.
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nobody in Tejas wears cowboy hats 'cept lawmen and mexicans.

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