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File: 4Chan airbus posts .jpg (126 KB, 1920x1080)
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Thought on electric air travel?
>>
Sick of threads about it desu
>>
improbably spiced aka no, sage
>>
>>1566172
Batteries are fine for Cessna-tier general aviation, but probably won't catch on that quickly due to cost, boomers, etc.

Hydrogen as a fuel for a turbine will be game changing for aviation ONLY IF you solve the problem of creation and storage of hydrogen. Industry would probably shift when fusion power finally gets invented (ie. in """30 years""")
>>
>>1566172
>electric
>airbus
Those two are hydrogen combustion hybrid turbofan, not even a electric-driven fan as the E-Fan.
>>
Idk if it’s possible in the next 20 years but it would be based.
I’d be happy to see oil companies losing all that revenue and carbon emissions going down.
>>
Airbus sucking up govt cheese and delivering nothing
>>
>>1566172
energy density is too low, would weigh the plane down. It only makes sense for cars and bikes
>>
>>1566172
Only possible for short range distances or as hybrid: take off and landing electric, flying with jets/combustion engines.
>>
>>1569390
Ammonia is way more toxic than gasoline.
>>
>>1569400
Or inhale it.

Any accidents with significant quantities would be a major problem.
>>
>>1569385
More about waste to hydrogen and solar hydrogen:

https://cen.acs.org/energy/hydrogen-power/Turning-organic-waste-hydrogen/97/i14

https://scitechdaily.com/energy-industry-game-changer-using-rust-and-organic-waste-to-produce-hydrogen-fuel/
>>
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>>1566172

Every bit as interesting and useful as flywheel air travel
>>
>>1570114
>>1570126

Fucking cool
>>
>>1566172
its fucking retarded
t. aerospace engineering student
>>
I don't think it's possible any time in the next decade but I think it's great that people are researching it. Could come up with a lot of improvements in battery/engine tech that spin off into other industries.
>>
>>1569385
/sfg/ here. You don't want anything to do with liquid hydrogen, most evil fucking substance ever.

>near absolute zero storage temperature
>insane handling requirements
>rapes any material it contacts with embrittlement
>literally cannot contain it, it will leak
>boom

Gaseous or chemically bonded forms have potential though, yes.
>>
>>1571430
>stackexchange
hi nikolasv
>>
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>>1571450
how does it feel that they're all in jail, nikkie?
>>
When people mass post links to articles and documents do they actually expect people to read them?
>>
>>1569850
What if he's right though?
>>
>>1567313
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVPpi0pNP5Q

https://wwe.youtube.com/watch?v=p3BoCiGEMwA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E21CQCfLOVs

And this may inspire similar solutions for air propulsion, other arrangements of foils, ...
>>
>>1572626
Fixed link:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3BoCiGEMwA
>>
>>1572631
Article about paddle-wheel propulsion:

https://www.marinepropulsors.com/proceedings/2013/6A.2.pdf

I wonder how far you can go using hydrofoils in a horizontal half-immerse paddle-wheel, similar to this:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclogyro

And maybe combining the ideas of changing the pitch of each foil used by the previously posted videos. Also hydrofoils create too much "downwards" thrust and maybe they can be tweaked for better propulsion and less lift.
>>
>>1571450
>>1571454
http://hydrogen-peroxide.us/uses-monoprop-steam-generation/AIAA-2007-5537_Hydrogen_Peroxide-Optimal_for_Turbomachinery_and_Power_Applications.pdf

Decomposed hydrogen peroxide has been and is being used in a wide range of power applications due to several unique features of the monopropellant such as temperature control, safety, ease of use, non-toxicity, cool combustion temperatures, and attractive working fluid properties. Numerous power applications, especially those for turbo-machinery, both past and present are described and discussed providing technical information and analytic tools to help designers determine if hydrogen peroxide is the optimal choice for power applications. Modern usage of hydrogen peroxide with turbo-machinery is discussed to illustrate the inherent advantages of this working fluid.

https://www.jtmcdaniel.com/walter_turbine.html

Walter achieved his remarkable speeds by using Perhydrol, a nearly pure hydrogen peroxide, as an oxydizer. This was run through a catalyzing system, which broke down the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into hydrogen and oxygen, in the process producing high pressure steam and oxygen at a very high temperature. The creation of the steam used up both of the hydrogen atoms and one of the oxygen, leaving a free oxygen atom in the mixture. Since the temperature of the gases was hot enough to sustain combustion, diesel fuel was injected, which used up the free oxygen atom as it burned. This increased both the heat and pressure of the steam. The steam was then used to power a turbine, which combined elements of both gas and Parsons (steam) turbine technology.

Unfortunately for the Kriegsmarine—but probably fortunately for the Allies—the Walter system had nearly as many problems as benefits. The Perhydrol fuel was extremely corrosive, requiring the use of special fuel lines.
>>
>>1572862
http://hydrogen-peroxide.us/history-UK/hydrogen-peroxide-for-propulsion-and-power_PR_Stokes-1998.pdf

Germany, at war in 1940, accelerated the research and development it had directed through the 1930's to a new source of energy and its application. Applied earlier, it would probably have sustained Germany's early victories; by advancing technology in key areas, it might have changed the ultimate course of the war. This paper is concerned with the use of hydrogen peroxide at high strength, known in Britain as High Test Peroxide or HTP. Prime demonstrations of its potential are that in Autumn 1940 the German experimental Submarine V 80 attained an underwater speed of 28 knots compared with the 8 knots of conventional diesel-electric vessels and, in Autumn 1941, the Me 163a a rocket fighter flew at 624 mph when contemporary advanced operational fighter aircraft sought to attain 400 mph. The growth and application of the technology of hydrogen peroxide propulsion continued throughout the War. It was followed by withdrawal to the shadows of the international defence industry with an occasional public reminder of its potential.

https://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/index.php/hydrogen-fuel-production/hydrogen-peroxide-fuel-for-automobiles/

For instance, researchers at Purdue University have used hydrogen peroxide and an aluminum alloy to power a fuel cell that one day could be used in a car or vehicle. Hydrogen peroxide can also be electrolyzed like water to produce hydrogen and oxygen, which can then be run through either an internal combustion engine or a fuel cell to power the vehicle. A third method is to use hydrogen peroxide to fuel a turbine engine that will be used to power the vehicle.

Comments: Ammonia seems to be a better carrier of hydrogen, not so good for combustion, but somewhat hard to synthesize.

Hydrogen Peroxide seems great for combustion, don't know how fit it is for fuel cells and it seems easier to synthesize.
>>
>>1572869
Direct Hydrogen Peroxide fuel cells exist:

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/cc/c8cc06802j#!divAbstract
>>
>>1571454
More about synthesizing hydrogen peroxide:

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsenergylett.9b02199

https://news.mit.edu/2019/mit-process-could-make-hydrogen-peroxide-available-remote-places-1023

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbfxh3jIZZU
>>
>>1573039
It also has potential as an additive for combustion:

https://revolution-green.com/hydrogen-peroxide-as-fuel-direct-synthesis-of-hydrogen-peroxide/

Which may also help hydrogen or ammonia engines. I can't find anything about decomposing it into hydrogen and oxygen for regular fuel cells. Only the research I already posted.
>>
>>1566172
Some replies were deleted here but they can be found on the usual third-party archives.
>>
>>1573469
What I am looking at here?
60 replies of spambot?
>>
>>1573479
Some boomers kicked me out of the aviation threads and contained me in dedicated threads.
There are links to promising developments in transportation and energy that triggered some people so much they deleted it.
>>
>>1572626
>>1572631
It has many recent research articles about it and it seems to work for air propulsion:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801819308261
>>
>>1573567
>promising developments
Either its on the free marked, or GTFO.
Limbo tech is always vapor ware.
>>
>>1573702
OK, hand rubber.
>>
>>1573684
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kz1VQrKOr-w
>>
>>1573810
A playlist with examples:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaaBkl96JN4&list=PLvpmcKdFJiq1fzZI-VHMmViUgDEBKp5Pa

An air propulsion solution capable of replacing propellers and fans would have to work with higher torque and frequency of movement, maybe many airfoils in ducts or other unusual solution.
>>
>>1573810
>>1573812
In nature, propulsive foils have non-uniform stiffness and motion (slower and stronger in the beginning, faster and weaker in the end):

Effects of non-uniform stiffness on the swimming performance of a passively-flexing, fish-like foil model

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-3190/10/5/056019

This doesn't seem to be simulated by any current research.
>>
>>1574317
And every impulse made by muscles are calculated based on many sensors around joints, skin and other regions, it's similar to traction control in cars.
>>
>>1573084
Numerical study of hydrogen peroxide enhancement of ammonia premixed flames

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360544220312251
>>
>>1566172
Ammonia as hydrogen carrier for transportation; investigation of the ammonia exhaust gas fuel reforming

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319913013761
>>
>>1566172
I've mentioned this before, but I finally found related research:

Steel-reinforced polymer: An innovative and promising material for strengthening infrastructures

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228390565_Steel-reinforced_polymer_An_innovative_and_promising_material_for_strengthening_infrastructures
>>
>>1566172
Video about superwood:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m39f2bCIajk
>>
>>1574634
Article about hydrides, with lots of reactions releasing hydrogen:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydride

Interesting comment:

Palladium absorbs up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen at room temperatures, forming palladium hydride. This material has been discussed as a means to carry hydrogen for vehicular fuel cells.
>>
>>1575888
About metal hydrides and Palladium:

https://phys.org/news/2018-07-gold-palladium-alloys-palladium-hydrogen-storage.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369702111701432
>>
>>1576029
According to the articles, MgH2 has almost the same hydrogen density than LOHCs, but Department of Energy jews rejected both for bullshit reasons.
>>
>>1566172
Air travel should only be used in long distances or where there is an ocean between. Electric air travel do has no reason to live. Electric ga maybe.
>>
You would need a really long plug
>>
>>1566172
i want conversion kits for GA airplanes coupled with a solar generating fabric so the entire skin is generating power. get low? land and wait. i imagine it would significantly extend range.

i think once battery tech about doubles in capacity/lbs youll start to see a lot more electric aviation, operating costs are so much lower.
>>
>>1578012
Even a whole skin of solar on a small plane wouldn't do much at all. Solar cells aren't anywhere close to efficient enough to actually extend range in any meaningful way.
>>
>>1578012
Harbor Air already has commercial service with electric DHC-2s. I think we'll see Twin Otter size electric planes in commercial use by the end of the decade.
>>
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>>1566172
How about using a sky rail system? That would solve the problem of keeping the plane powered without having to rely on batteries and even allow longer bodies, creating a more efficient long-distance solution.
>>
>>1566172
Gay jews and their goons are complaining a lot about emissions as part of their psyop to push higher energy prices and shitty products based on rare metals.

It seems there's one solution that has been overlooked which is apparently simple:

https://dieselnet.com/tech/engine_water.php

https://globaljournals.org/GJRE_Volume12/3-The-Effect-of-High-Water-Content-of.pdf

Among many others besides catalysts in the exhaust. It looks like more fuel efficiency results in higher NOx emissions, so this is a stealthy way to "jew" cars into using more (((oil))).

Certain fuel additives (hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen, ...) can also aid in reducing emissions and also trigger the jews.
>>
>>1578393
Fuck off back to /pol/ or better yet just kill yourself.
>>
>>1578393
A previous comment about emissions control (including the replies):
https://archive.nyafuu.org/n/thread/1536572/#1554851

Changing the amount of oxygen and nitrogen in the air intake also helps.

>>1578396
OK, jew.
>>
>>1578017
I disagree, there is a lot of surface area on a plane. And even if it only extends flight time 10% being able to land in remote areas and camp for a day and then make another 2-300mile hop or fly around would be really, really cool. Flexible solar is just getting decent enough to think about, id guess the Oratex people would be the ones to make it happen and get it certified. half the surface area of a 170 for instance would easily be able to generate a couple thousand watts of 24v power and not having the rpm restrictions of combustion engines i assume you could throttle way back.
>>
>>1578019
yeah its so cool, way more horsepower available on takeoff and the operating cost makes aviation so much more affordable. i think operating cost was like 8% of piston. no avgas, no overhauls, no oil. brilliant.
>>
>>1578421
You don't know basic high school math then.

>>1578423
And about 30 minutes of range, absurd weight and volume of the batteries, when the (((Lithium))) battery degrades too much you are going to spend a fortune replacing it, only works on really small airplanes for more range...
If jews die and metal-air batteries or others become more common this will improve, but it will always be way behind a proper fuel.
>>
Electric air travel with batteries will be great for GA trainers and clubs, as most of their flights are pattern work anyway.

Electric motorgliders are already becoming common despite really bad reliability (yes electric fans, electric power has plenty of components that can fail and set things on fire). But this is likely to improve with time.

As for commercial aircraft, hydrogen is just a bad meme, there's nothing wrong with using fuel. If you want 0 CO2 emissions you can synthethise fuel by consuming CO2 from the air, the technology already exists (not used because it's pointless). Pure electric transport might work for short flights between local airfields, but it seems rather situational. Flying drones to carry packaging might actually lose out to self driving electric cars, too.
>>
>>1566172
good luck
>>
>>1578702
The reason for discussing about the use of hydrogen, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and other carbon-less fuels is because hydrocarbons are hard to synthesize.
>>
>>1575267
Another composite material:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6xilk4wY-OI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fz4Ioi1jFHY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4bApsXSavM
>>
>>1566172
Another "juiced" engine:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScS-QCWHfb8
>>
>>1578509
>you cant lay a cable under the ocean
>you can have a heavier than air craft
>you cant send messages through the air
>you cant have an airplane without a propeller
>you cant put a man on the moon
>people don't want personal computers
>you cant land a rocket
>you cant have an electric airplane
you cant have an efficient electric airplane <<<you are here

top shelf Lithion-iron (not ion) batteries are good for 5000 100% duty cycles, even more with less than 100% depth of discharge, whcih of course maintaining a 30 minute reserve would mean youd never 100% depth of discharge the batteries, so say 5000 cycles of 30 minutes each, thats still 2500 hours of flight time before battery refurbushment or replacement. Will practical application of this tech lead to refinement of the technology, of course. Should we have been moonshoting this stuff accross all types of transport for the last 20 years, obviously. But it appears the fossil fuel industry is living rent free in your head just as much as it does in our government.

inb4 batteries start fires, so does fuel and batteries are little less likely to burn you alive if you crash. Just look at the early history of aircaft motors, horrify really and we wont have 5% of that developing this new kind of propulsion. Continntal and Lycoming are dying industries and probably filled with short sighted boomers who cant think 10 years ahead, let alone 20.
>>
>>1579233
Whatever you say, jew, I don't get why not use another already viable technology and insist in your expensive heavy bullshit instead.
>>
>>1578393
Using Exhaust Water To Make More Horsepower!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LB48sawbWAs
>>
>>1578984
It's steam reforming, the process itself is rather simple, especially if it's done to produce methane but also can be used for more complex hydrocarbons - the nazis it to produce fuel from coal, for example. Using co2 from the air just requires more power, and you could use say a nuclear power plant to provide it and make the whole process carbon neutral if desired.

The whole reason hydrogen is being looked at is because emitting co2 is "bad" , regardless of the process.
>>
>>1579886
If you want to synthesize fuel directly from energy sources instead of relying on organic matter.
You can use it on a high power renewable microgrid and make fuel locally, for example, but ammonia seems more complex. This technology already exists.

Oil has too many uses and many different solutions would be necessary to replace it.

>>1579635
Interesting article:

http://www.hho4free.com/documents/spark%20plug%20howtomakeplasmaplugs.pdf
>>
>>1580142
I thought about it and it seems, according to the deleted research articles I posted here before, hydrogen powered internal combustion engines are competitive with some fuel cells in efficiency when used as generators.
And even if not used as generators, it's a very smooth migration towards a fuel that is easy to synthesize and obtained from many different sources.
>>
>>1580639
ICEs can tolerate the higher temperatures required by hydrogen combustion via better materials:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nSrpKeYdY5I

(They are called adiabatic engines.)

And many other techniques to reduce the temperature, including:
>>1578393
>>1579635

Reminder there are many ways to transport hydrogen safely other than compressing or liquefying it.
>>
>>1579635
Reusing energy from the exhaust gas reduces its temperature while increasing energy efficiency, and makes it easier to recycle water from it. One example of such technology is:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-stroke_engine
>>
>>1580679
Maybe you can keep injecting water into the exhaust gas to have more volume and use it for more mechanical work in the low pressure piston.
Or any other way to reuse the exhaust gas that isn't purely passing it through a separate mechanism.
>>
>>1578393
>>1578401
>>1579635
NOx is the only significant emission from hydrogen engines, besides the usual solutions and the ones already listed, there are more:
https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/2000F9IK.txt?ZyActionD=ZyDocument&Client=EPA&Index=1995%20Thru%201999&Docs=&Query=&Time=&EndTime=&SearchMethod=1&TocRestrict=n&Toc=&TocEntry=&QField=&QFieldYear=&QFieldMonth=&QFieldDay=&UseQField=&IntQFieldOp=0&ExtQFieldOp=0&XmlQuery=&File=D%3A%5CZYFILES%5CINDEX%20DATA%5C95THRU99%5CTXT%5C00000017%5C2000F9IK.txt&User=ANONYMOUS&Password=anonymous&SortMethod=h%7C-&MaximumDocuments=1&FuzzyDegree=0&ImageQuality=r75g8/r75g8/x150y150g16/i425&Display=hpfr&DefSeekPage=x&SearchBack=ZyActionL&Back=ZyActionS&BackDesc=Results%20page&MaximumPages=1&ZyEntry=1

Including an air filter that is being used on the intake of hydrogen fuel cells.
>>
>>1580679
>>1580705
There's a better way of doing it using combined cycle engines, which is essencially the combinatio n of an internal combustion engine and a steam engine powered by heat from the exhaust.

It's already a reality for gas powered power stations, and the tecnology should be easy to apply in ships. Maybe even long range trucks, although for cars batteries seem the better option.
>>
>>1580794
It only work for certain loads in some implementations, it's a good idea but so far it has limitations:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exhaust_heat_recovery_system
>>
>>1580794
>although for cars batteries seem the better option
This is what a certain group is pushing now for certain reason but I disagree with it.
Anyway, my posts about this were deleted.
>>
>>1581092
If lithium batteries cannot be recycled, then they are far worse than ic engines from an environmental point of view. Which is doubly ironic since lead batteries are already 95% recycled...
>>
>>1581143
They are heavy, so the whole car becomes inefficient, hard to mine except in certain places, it degrades quickly and has to be discarded, ...
It's a technology that suits the needs of smaller devices and vehicles, but it's far from being adequate for bigger ones.

>>1580771
https://www.theengineer.co.uk/hydrogen-fuelled-combustion-engine-truck/
>>
>>1583511
I can't believe people think shit that is just so extremely wrong on the facts.
>>
>>1566172
Generator driven electrical ducted fans replacing turbo fan engines? Yeah I can see that at some point in the future.

Battery powered ducted fans?
Unless technology improves greatly, I see can't myself ever wanting to ride a plane that would have to land constantly to recharge.

Also LiPo batteries are kinda known for spontaneously combusting, even quality ones on occasion, as anyone who does RC flying enough knows about or has seen, and those would likely be the only batteries with enough energy density currently available to power any sort of viable electric aircraft.
>>
>>1583528
* tips kippah *
Unjewed batteries seem to be way better, but a lot of people need to die until they are commercialized.

>>1583907
And there's hydrogen, fuel cells, better engines, different fuels and other technologies that trigger big nosed homosexuals in general.
Small Lithium-ion and Lithium-polymer airplanes already have a decent range and speed, but the technology obviously doesn't scale.
>>
>>1576730
https://www.metal-am.com/u-s-army-research-lab-to-license-nanogalvanic-aluminium-powder-for-hydrogen-generation/

The laboratory stated that the powder has many advantages, as a potential energy source which is stable as an alloy powder, is non-toxic, and is environmentally friendly. Because it can be transported in powder or tablet form and combined with any available water source, the discovery has the potential to eliminate reliance on high-pressure hydrogen cylinders.

It is also said to be extremely efficient as an energy source, with 1 kg of the powder generating 4.4 kWh of energy – enough to power ten 60 W incandescent light bulbs for more than seven hours, or the equivalent number of LED bulbs for over fifty hours.

--

A good Lithium battery has 0.2 kWh per kg of energy. The only similar technologies that could compete with this are aluminum-air (and other metal-air) batteries and maybe other forms of hydrogen storage.
But it's still hard to recharge (it can't be done locally, it requires a complex reactor, ...) and the same applies to high energy density metal-air as far as I know. Other forms of storing hydrogen seem to avoid this problem.
>>
>>1566172
Basics of STOL wings:

https://www.fzt.haw-hamburg.de/pers/Scholz/HOOU/AircraftDesign_8_HighLift.pdf
>>
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>>1566172
I'm fine with it as long as they charge via USB Type-C. Brits did it years ago though, and it recharged midair simply by flying into a thunderstorm.
>>
>>1584310
Related articles about reusing the Aluminum in batteries and hydrogen carriers:

https://blog.sintef.com/sintefenergy/energy-efficiency/could-the-chloride-process-replace-the-hall-heroult-process-in-aluminium-production/

https://patents.google.com/patent/US3518172A/en

http://cecri.csircentral.net/2112/1/21-1985.pdf

Despite it being about 50% efficient with this alternative process, the massive reduction in overall weight dramatically increases the final efficiency of the vehicle.
>>
>>1585223
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1003632614630545
>>
>>1574629
>>1574634
Ammonia synthesis, another good carrier of hydrogen, also has alternatives, for example:

A fresh approach to ammonia synthesis - MÁTÉ J. BEZDEK & PAUL J. CHIRIK - Nature

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340901599_Solid_solution_for_catalytic_ammonia_synthesis_from_nitrogen_and_hydrogen_gases_at_50_C
>>
>>1584310
>>1585223
>>1585224
https://phys.org/news/2018-10-catalyst-high-energy-aluminum-air-batteries.html
>>
>>1585223
>>1585224
This is complicated and has many possible alternatives, but it's worth researching:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/aluminum-production

If the water resulting from use of hydrogen is recycled, aluminum powder can provide a single solution for fuel cells, batteries and combustion engines that is comparable to other fuels in energy density and efficiency of synthesis. Many metals also can be used and need to be recycled the same way.
It is safe and the required technology isn't inaccessible.
>>
>>1566172
Why this triggered the usual suspects so much it went bankrupt three times?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iSQRftRBJAA
>>
>>1585784
I'm not understanding how it would have any business future in the first place. The cost per hp is ridiculous, the fuel consumption is average and there's no existing plane designed for it.

It makes much more sense to adapt car engines to aircraft use, which is why there are companies that actually do it. Especially turbo diesels, which have benefits from fuel consumption and fuel cost.
>>
I don't really see the point of investing in the R&D when you can just spend that money on rail and reduce emissions even more while keeping current airplanes the same.
However if a spin-off technology from the electric truck industry helps it along it sounds reasonable.
>>
>>1585835
If you read about the original product, it was a replacement for turboprops (mostly PT6's). It was way more affordable than them and 30% more efficient. One problem is this niche attracting too many parasitic faggots and other obnoxious people, so any change, no matter how small, gets them triggered.

Car engines for continuous high power operation don't exist, maybe boat, truck or other engines.

>>1585870
Most of the technology shares a lot in common with what would be used in other transportation methods.
>>
>>1585346
Ultra-High-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cell

https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1156937

It's very efficient for something that is close to a fuel.
>>
>>1585904
That's the problem with most car engine conversions - they make the engine run at max power when they should make the engine run at max fuel efficiency, using max torque for climbs. That means there will be a weight penalty compared to dedicated aero engines, but lets the engine work at a level it is designed to do continuously. And the weight penalty is acceptable with the higher efficiency of modern airframes.

Although that made slightly more sense, i guess there is also the problem of people who want a jet turbine rather than a piston engine just for the status.
>>
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Impossible
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>>1566172
No
>>
>>1586182
And the amount of continuous power a car needs is really small, so this can't scale beyond small airplanes. There are many other engines to choose form, but they aren't as accessible as car engines.
One of the many reasons aerospace is so stagnant except for the lower ranges (experimental, LSA, light jets, ...) are too many homos.
>>
>>1580665
This may need a revision after all.the advances in materials, manufacturing, filters, catalysts...

https://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=287891

https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/930984/

https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/850508/

And it triggers the heebs too.
>>
>>1566172
There's a company claiming to have decent electrostatic motors, they don't use rare materials and are more resilient than electromagnetic ones, but they used to be really small:

https://www.wisbusiness.com/2020/c-motive-technologies-is-reshaping-electric-motors-and-generators/

https://www.c-motive.com/products

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~graithel/emotor.pdf
>>
>>1569847
>>1573039
>>1573084
>>1574634
>>1584310
>>1585223
>>1585224
>>1585228
>>1585327
>>1585346
>>1585929
I wonder if trying different electromagnetic disturbances in electrolytic reactions (permanent or varying magnetic fields, non-fixed currents, carefully positioned electric fields, which could also be dynamic, ...) could help other reactions besides hydrogen generation.
Also the last video shows some tricks to improve the contact surface of the electrodes.

Early Pulsed Electrolysis System Investigation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCp6nTNG6jk

Making Hydrogen With Magnets

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5LYT38Ex94

Improving A Hydrogen Generator

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQYRnuz1p-M
>>
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>>1587374
And microwaves, ways to stir the reactants using low energy, ...

Another reason to care about hydrogen and hydrogen storage, maybe other non-carbon fuels: it opens possibilities for better airplane propulsion.

Another possibility here is the use of carefully designed nozzles similar to the ones used by JetOptera or the Dyson fan to improve how the engine's exhaust and the ambient air interact.
Pulsed exhausts instead of steady exhaust flows also may have advantages and are another possibility.
>>
>>1587483
Related:

http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=25857

If heating on the stove, try adding turbulence (accompanied with noise) to the flame by knocking the metal lid on the top of the stove burner slightly to the side.

I have witnessed a hotter flame (per the time it takes for a sample to glow) and I recall one source noting that a perturbed flame is measurably hotter (100 or more centigrade per my recollection).

Per page 14 in this reference "Turbulent Flames and the Role of Chemistry", for a 2/1 air methane mix in a turbulent flame a cited temperature of 1,350 K. Per this reference, "Study of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Methane-Air Reacting Flame", per page 76, a much hotter temperature is visible on the graph with a high temperature in excess of 1,700 K.

--

Aluminum storage requires more tweaking related to the catalysts, water reuse (I'm almost sure it can't reuse all water and some of it is consumed), the temperature, pressure and the pH of the medium:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2187076413000559

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0360319919311486

This approach doesn't require additional metals or nanoparticles to beat the oxidized coating of aluminum.
>>
>>1569847
This doesn't use the rust catalyst mentioned before, but it was still promising:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uj-xFUnN96k

Concentrating solar has many other configurations and uses besides this one.
>>
>>1580142
Similar spark plug sold by Pulstar:

https://pulstar.com/how-it-works/
>>
>>1566172
Genius:

https://aviation.stackexchange.com/questions/66130/why-would-a-propeller-have-blades-of-different-lengths
>>
>>1587483
>>1587731
Detonation engines use laser and other elaborate ignition methods, maybe this can be improved to be a replacement for them:

https://youtu.be/ziQdB1X7MEc
>>
>>1587483
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THRUST AUGMENTATION BY EJECTORS ON A PULSE DETONATION ENGINE

http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0354-9836/2015/0354-98361500066H.pdf

Adding an ejector to the exit of the detonation tube can significantly enhance thrust produced by PDE. A peak thrust augmentation level of 80.5% was achieved.
>>
>batteries are heavy
>more weight needs more lift
>more lift means more drag
>more drag needs more energy
>more energy = more batteries
kek, it's not happening.

Hydrogen is the future. We just need a green source of plentiful electricity. E.g. geothermal, nuclear, etc to produce it.
>>
>>1588014
> kek
(((Your))) new narrative is pretending it can't be made from cheap or distributed sources, then shove expensive sources like nuclear or natural gas.
Also depending on the storage method it can be made in your own home, which is something your mafia will desperately try to prevent from happening. Same for any energy source that outputs too much power and isn't kosher.
>>
>>1587793
Other interesting comments about this technology: it was proposed replacing classic turbine generator technology with 8 alternating PDEs arranged in a cylinder and a air turbine in the exhaust.
Other patent uses PDEs inside a regular turbojet to convert the deflagration process into a detonation.
It can be made shorter by using spiral structures instead of cylinders.
I think the shape of the combustion chamber, exhaust nozzle, ignition methods, where to use the PDEs, combine multiple units... are still up to debate.
Current prototypes have very high specific impulse and about 1/9:of the thrust necessary for a small private airplane.
Pulsed propulsion can have superior performance than continuous solutions, my previous thread have a few arguments for this idea. Maybe the detonation frequency can be low to take advantage of this.
Maybe rotating detonation engines aren't worth the hassle now, with the technology still in its infancy and it's absurdly high complexity.
One kit airplane based on a Burt Rutan design, called Borealis, already flew using a PDE made of car parts, the airframe could stand the stress but the noise was insane (which can be improved by suitable materials, shapes, arrangements and frequency).
>>
>>1588022
Maybe being exclusively fed by air isn't required, it seems oxygen also can be stored in convenient ways:

https://www.iflscience.com/chemistry/new-material-absorbs-oxygen-stores-it-later/

Of course both hydrogen and oxygen storage must have the proper output flow rates, efficient and adequate methods for recharging and discharging the storage unit, ... to be used in this application.
>>
>>1588014
This also happens in the shitty giant EVs that are being pushed by the media and the "famiglia".
The lastest hydrogen car that was released a few months ago is 250 kg lighter than a similar battery electric car, even using compressed hydrogen as the storage method.
It also lacks a more advanced electric drivetrain (high power battery/capacitor, intelligent power electronics and more refined use of motors) mostly because the technology is immature, which would also make it also lighter, faster, more efficient and safer.
>>
>>1588028
For example using two electric motors instead of a differential connected to a lot of heavy stuff:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQMO8boD5bg

Torque vectoring instead of gears (or instead of nothing), or using small gears, or hub motors (which always attract the exact same replies nitpicking about it for some reason), hybrid capacitors instead of giant toy car batteries for more instant power and better regenerative breaking, ...
>>
It'd be pretty cool considering that fuel is the major expense airlines have to take into consideration. Don't count on those savings being passed on to the consumer tho.
>>
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>>1586869
>>1588022
Bizarrely, those technologies have implications for manufacturing:

Application of detonation forming in fuel cells manufacturing

https://www.jara.org/en/research/energy/news/detail/detonation-forming

Solid Lubricant Assisted Machining -An Environmental Friendly Clean Technology to Improve the Surface Quality

https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2017-28-1964/?src=850508

>>1588032
Maybe for general aviation or smaller services, so they can compete with bigger ones.
Some services are already competitive with more expensive passenger tickets in regular airlines.

>>1588028
Example of the difference between an organic liquid carrier (a good, practical and very safe solution but about 60% larger than ammonia or certain hydrides, for example) and compressed hydrogen. A hydrogen car usually has about 5.5 kg of hydrogen stored and uses 700 bar with carbon fiber canisters, which are expensive and heavy.
>>
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>>1588053
How the hydrogen is stored in a current car with 400 mile range. The canisters are bullet-proof and if they get a rupture somehow, and you are unlucky enough for them to ignite, they don't burst like batteries, they form an uniform flame exiting the puncture and orientated upwards (because hydrogen is way lighter than air).
>>
>>1588057
I forgot to mention fuel cells can used many fuels, including regular ones (gasoline, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, coal...) and there is ongoing research about making hydrogen fuel cells without rare metals:

https://phys.org/news/2020-05-platinum-free-catalysts-cheaper-hydrogen-fuel.html

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/fuel-cells-without-platinum/3001726.article

https://en.how10.com/1485863-to-fuel-cells-without-platinum
>>
>>1588062
Natural gas, a very clean and abundant energy source, may have viable conversions to liquid fuels:

Highly selective aerobic oxidation of methane to methanol over gold decorated zinc oxide via photocatalysis

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/ta/d0ta02793f#!divAbstract

There are many other proposed solutions for both methanol and other liquids, one example:

https://wiki.opensourceecology.org/wiki/Methane_to_methanol
>>
>>1584310
>>1585327
>>1585346
>>1585223
>>1585929
>>1587505
More uses for aluminum and other common metals as an energy sources, in this case being used as fuel directly, not as a battery or hydrogen carrier:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/energywise/energy/renewables/metal-powder-a-zerocarbon-fuel-with-promising-properties

https://www.mcgill.ca/newsroom/channels/news/could-metal-particles-be-clean-fuel-future-257172

https://spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/fuel-cells/metal-fuel-cells

Recyclable metal fuels for clean and compact zero-carbon power

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360128518300327

Nanosized Aluminum as Metal Fuel

https://catalogimages.wiley.com/images/db/pdf/9781848217171.excerpt.pdf
>>
>>1588057
Another possible weight reduction is reducing the size of the fuel cell pack by increasing its power density, cutting it in half seems to be possible:

https://revolution-green.com/third-party-validates-hyzon-motors-fuel-cell-record-peak-power-density-6kw-l/

And ammonia, as previously noted, is more energy dense than LOHCs, 6 kg of hydrogen would fit in a regular 40 liter fuel tank with 34 liters of ammonia. As I mentioned before, the only big issue about ammonia is synthesizing it, but there is a lot of ongoing research about this and I hope small scale reactors to be used at home or in small businesses become available sometime:
>>1588015

So only big energy demands are supplied by bigger corporations and the government.

>>1587374
>>1587483
>>1587505
Maybe this technique of adding small external interferences for chemical reactions works for flow batteries and fuels cells.
>>
>>1588421
Considering ammonia costs about 600 USD per ton, and you need 28 kg for a full tank (34 liters), a full tank would cost 17 dollars (higher because it isn't bulk), which is competitive with regular fuels.
>>
>>1588426
And ammonia is currently made from refined sources of hydrogen (natural gas) instead of water and cheap renewable electricity, organic or plastic waste, scrap metal, shitty oils and coals, ...
>>
>>1588053
Metal presses (which are also used for other materials) for small and medium business tend to suck, maybe this is a starting point for something better:

Sheet metal forming by using gas imploding detonation

https://www.osti.gov/etdeweb/biblio/581615

Press molds can be milled or printed nowadays and easily tolerate the necessary compression.
>>
Hydrogen fuel cells seem a lot more sensible for airships than airplanes. It's much easier to store hydrogen when you already need a huge gas bag to fly anyway, and there's far less issues with power to weight and fuel consumption.
>>
>>1588460
Issues that don't exist, by the way:
>>1588426
>>1588421
>>
>>1588460
Even in properly designed combustion engines:
>>1587483
>>
>>1566172
More articles about wings with fine tuned aerodynamics, one with some suspicious details:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propulsive_Wing

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kline–Fogleman_airfoil

STOL — THE POTENTIAL OF THE CIRCULATION CONTROL WING CONCEPT

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1559-3584.1979.tb03869.x
>>
>>1587276
Related:

Researchers develop completely new type of electrostatic generator

https://phys.org/news/2014-04-electrostatic.html
>>
>>1589375
This is very important and it could almost double the (already high) electric output of concentrating solar power or use other sources of heat more efficiently:

https://phys.org/news/2013-12-highly-efficient-thermoelectronic.html
>>
>>1589495
Or store energy as heat and generate electricity from it, similar to this product:

https://www.azelio.com
>>
>>1588426
And there better production methods for it:

https://web.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-081915-125250/unrestricted/Ammonia_Paper_Final.pdf

The economic comparison shows a breakeven point for a current medium-scale ammonia plant to be five years with a production cost of $600/ton, where the patented process plant can break even in less than two years and has a relative production cost of $232/ton.

This still uses natural gas for hydrogen instead of cheaper sources.
>>
>>1588432
>>1589515
Ammonia can also be found in many types of waste. Urea, which can be easily converted to either hydrogen or ammonia, can also be found the same way.
>>
>>1589515
And low energy methods are being developed:

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/mechanochemistry-makes-ammonia-under-mild-conditions/4012945.article
>>
Taking a 737 as our standard for airliners. You would need 250000 kg of tesla batteries to equal the 18000kg of jet a. The 737 max take off mass is 80000 kg.
>>
>>1589561
It would have to be hydrogen fuel cell, not lithium batteries.

Fuel cells are getting cheaper to the point it's now economical to build fuel cell plants to store excess energy generated by solar and wind for use during times when renewable generation drops due to clouds or calm winds.

pic related - modular fuel cell plants. They can be shipped in standard containers then quickly assembled at power plant sites.
>>
>>1589648
Why not skip straight to hydrogen. Combustion of hydrogen is far more efficient and releases a much greater amount of energy.
>>
>>1589561
Or the about 1.5 times of mass in metal-air batteries (assuming 30% efficiency in the 737 engine), or about the same or less in ammonia (as hydrogen storage or not) if you don't go electric and have properly designed propulsion.
Of course the comparison doesn't work because electric motors, power electronics, ... can't be used on giant airplanes as far as I know.

>>1589648
>>1589663
Jews, arabs and other idiots want to sell more rare metals and have more control of the energy market. Anything except shitty solar panels, ridiculously designed wind turbines, nuclear and lithium batteries is a threat to their monopolies.
Hydrogen combustion ranges from low efficiency and high power (rockets, turbojets, ...), to moderate efficiency (similar to the lower end of fuel cells) and moderate power (internal combustion engines).
Fuel cells can be almost 85% efficient while being compact and reliable, which is very hard to do in a heat engine. But I don't know if in this case it's worth having a lot of fuel cells instead.
>>
>>1589855
Too much carbon capture would threaten the existence of life on Earth (same for everything else normies morons and their masters push), but this is an example:

http://www.blueplanet-ltd.com/
>>
>>1589857
Another example:

https://newatlas.com/carbon-dioxide-graphene/60488/
>>
>>1589858
If purified and packaged, carbon dioxide can be used to boost plant and algae growth in greenhouses. It's also used in many other chemical processes.

Another example:

https://www.sustainabilitymatters.net.au/content/sustainability/news/algae-used-to-convert-co2-into-carbon-fibres-1472845829
>>
>>1587276
Somewhat related:

https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5961384-new-varying-capacitance-electrical-machine-phase
>>
>>1587276
Magnetless motors and generators:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reluctance_motor

Advanced Magnetless Motor Drives

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118752555.ch9
>>
>>1589857
Some gay jew deleted my reply about their carbon dioxide scam (it's in the archives anyway).

Mining, oil exploration and other businesses that extract fuels, metals and rare materials tend to be very shitty and sometimes unnecessarily.

It could be an activity that leaves no trace behind, controlling residues and leaving an almost untouched area via reforestation, but it's usually managed by some gay jew, arab or other psycho so it's rarely the case.

Some mining waste has practical uses, for example:
https://www.revistas.ufg.br/reec/article/download/46021/pdf

Sometimes deactivated mines can be used as sources of hydrogen before being shut down. And better technology can improve its environmental impact. It's a necessary activity so trying to make it viable in the long term is important.

Reducing the unnecessary use of those resources, such as disposable packaging, recycling those materials, ... are also valid strategies.
>>
>>1570608
why not making propeller aircraft powered by cable. Like trains except without the rails.
>>
>>1590189
how much would a more than 1000 km cable weigh?
>>
>>1590199
You'd fly low of course.
>>
>>1590201
and you would still carry the weight of the cable around, if not in the air, by dragging it across the ground. And that's without getting the damn thing entangled in the first obstacle it sees.

If you were talking about wireless power transmission then you might have a point, but then you run with difficult (but not impossible) issues like transmission efficiency, making an effective yet aerodynamic receiver, setting up a widespread network of ground power stations and finally making sure people aren't dying from the intensity of the radiation being broadcasted.
>>
>>1590204
wireless transmission is heinously inefficient.
A suitable cable wouldn't need to be longer than 100m and would be orders of magnitude lighter than carrying around fuel. In addition you can deliver enormous amounts of power which can in turn drive massive electric motors.

In addition those electric motors would be relatively low maintenance compared to turbines and basically there is no reason to build regular trains anymore. It could serve the same role but better, faster and without having to build very expensive rail everywhere. It would just need something similar to high voltage masts dotted around the land. Much less intrusive in the landscape.
>>
>>1590206
Are you trying to run an airplane from a mast, like a trolley bus (the only real way to have a 100 m cable connected to an airplane going places)? Because besides still having the visual problems of cables layed out everywhere, and flying lower than many high rise apartment buildings, you'll still have the issue of what happens if the plane has to change direction at any point, since it's teetered to the ground, unable to simply stop and remain still. And unable to turn, since supposing that it's travelling at 200 m/s - 400 knots - (turboprop speeds - going slower requires wider wingpans), it's gonna need a 4 km radius/ 8km diameter to be able to turn back without crushing the occupants. And not be workable for flights over the ocean.

How are you not seeing this is a terrible idea is beyond me.
>>
>>1590204
You could use (hybrid) capacitors and periodically dock and recharge some VTOL on the side of buildings, make it lighter and more efficient, glide instead of cruise the aircraft, follow beneficial air currents even if cruising, find a way to harvest enough energy from air friction, the sun (classic photovoltaic panels aren't enough), the cold air around the aircraft, wind (in case of airships), ...

Wireless transmission is always horrible, it could be based on LASERs, MASERs, non-audible sound or electromagnetism if the transmitters stayed in high altitude and had a method to direct the energy.
>>
>>1590214
This board is filled with sociopathic trash posting nonsense.
>>
>>1590214
Takeoff via mast cable sounds awesome.
All that juice, directly from the line, and a cool arc as disconnect after ascending.
>>
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>>1590214
Aircraft, helicopters or hybrids.
And yes, like a trolley.
>>
>>1568128
go talk to china about your carbon emissions and also you will never be a woman
>>
>>1590214
You are thinking the idea is to replace intercontinental flight. It's not.
The idea is to basically have a better and cheaper alternative to the train in the form of low altitude flying with electric aircraft and helicopters or hybrids.
>>
>>1590264
This isn't a bad idea, takeoff consumes a lot of energy. A well designed conector could be safe too.

>>1590288
There are ways to store enough energy for flights like this one. If you want continuous power from an external source without loss, you would have to think about all the issues and try to invent a modified solution, such as overhead cables in high altitude or many aircrafts towing an airship full of hydrogen with many cables connecting both via fuel cells. Or another idea.
>>
>>1590386
I mean the overhead cables would be supported by balloons.
>>
>>1590387
the most unpractical idea ive ever read
>>
>>1590443
It was an attempt at improving the original idea, my idea was using less jewish batteries or fuels (some of them listed here or in my previous threads), save energy or harvest energy locally:
>>1590218

Another promise from a previous era before the great gay jewing of 2012:

https://newatlas.com/hyundai-exoskeletons-scooter-2017-ces/47233/

https://newatlas.com/honda-leasing-walking-assist-device-exoskeleton/27681/

This seems very interesting and the YouTube channel of this company is crazy:

https://www.festo-didactic.com/int-en/learning-systems/stem/
>>
>>1590386
>>1590387

It sounds like an awesome concept but if it is feasible or not is another matter.
The resistance on cables that long is prohibitive. The weight of the cables too much to be held up by balloons.
>>
>>1590628
Neither of those is a problem. Besides the whole teetering issues said above, by hanging wires on ballons you make them vulnerable to winds, you won't even be able to keep them straight.
>>
>>1590658
I don't think they need to be too straight or static, this can be compensated in how the aircraft would have contact with the cables, and balloons can have aerodynamic (disc-like, for example) shapes and stability controls.
Still not using it is a good idea.

>>1585327
>>1588118
Metal-air flow batteries like those are very hard to beat in a practical sense, it can be recharged quickly and outside the vehicle, its contents are renewed on each charge, it is similar to replacing most of the batteries with new ones except for a few components, it's costly to recharge but the massive reduction in weight makes it worthwhile and it seems to be getting better at it, it's mostly made of cheap materials and the fluid is easy to manufacture.

In a regular battery both charging and recharging apparatus are replicated inside each small cell, though they share most components, and they operate on a fixed content, which degrades over time, having no way to easily replace it.

It is somewhat comparable to using hydrogen bounded to liquids and powders in energy content (about one third or half of the energy content instead of a minuscule fraction of it), but way less flexible.
>>
>>1589495
This look affordable and highly efficient:

Carbon‐Based Sunlight Absorbers in Solar‐Driven Steam Generation Devices

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/gch2.201700094

So everybody will ignore its existence.
>>
>>1578423
>>1588032
This clip claims they run their test airplane with "green" hydrogen produced on-site:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1QQ_TQpGmE

(the comments about motors, energy storage and fuel cells in cars also apply to this)

I think on-site conversion hydrogen in ammonia may be viable soon:
>>1589554

And as previously mentioned, there are ways to harvest massive amounts of energy locally from the environment or waste, which can also be used in high density batteries such as:
>>1590662

Or the clean use of more usual energy sources, preferably local and cheap ones, which is possible despite some people pretending it isn't.
>>
>>1590218
It's probably horrible too, but it sounds sci-fi:

https://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2012-06/armys-laser-guided-lightning-weapon-delivers-high-voltage-through-air/
>>
>>1590662
Even simpler versions of Metal-Air batteries are still great:

A low-cost portable cotton-based aluminum-air battery with high specific energy

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610219300761

Recycling the oxidized metal on-site seems hard, Zinc-Air flow batteries for large energy storage already exist with near 50% efficiency, and maybe more interest in such batteries will attract researchers to improve the process, similar to what is happening to ammonia synthesis.
>>
>>1592082
There are methods based on heat, some of them were demonstrated using solar heat directly. They also form CO, which is used by many chemical processes.

Alternative Al production methods: Part 1

https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=2115&context=eispapers
>>
>>1592091
This could also use solar heat:

The possible reduction of alumina to aluminum using hydrogen

https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JOM....52b..47B/abstract

Both methods are experimental, this one seems to be obscure.
>>
>>1592082
This battery uses a recharging method that works with Aluminum:

All solid state rechargeable aluminum–air battery with deep eutectic solvent based electrolyte and suppression of byproducts formation

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/ra/c9ra04567h#!divAbstract

There are many disadvantages to the electrolyte used for recharge, but as mentioned before the discharge and recharge process can be done separately in flow batteries.
>>
>>1589554
>>1592176
Another solution borrowed from rechargeable batteries for ammonia:

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/aluminium-nitrogen-batteries-offer-alternative-ammonia-synthesis/4012372.article
>>
>>1587483
Related:
https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/mechanochemistry-drops-the-ball-in-mof-synthesis/4011444.article

The method, liquid-assisted resonant acoustic mixing, uses a minimal amount of solvent and sound waves to shake the particles together. And it creates MOFs with no discernible difference to those made by traditional synthetic methods. Sonochemistry, using sonic wave frequencies to synthesise materials, is fairly well established. In fact, the researchers used a commercially available instrument to make their MOFs. The technique had previously been used to make co-crystals or in organic condensation reactions; this is the first time that scientists have synthesised MOFs synthesised in this way.
>>
>>1587716
>>1591234
https://phys.org/news/2016-06-solar-absorber-harness-sunlight-sunlight-to-heat.html
>>
>>1592286
More about heat-based solar:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330411717_Solar_Energy_Assessment_of_Molten_Salts_as_Thermal_Storage_Mediums

https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/generation-3-concentrating-solar-power-systems-gen3-csp

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/new-concentrating-solar-tower-is-worth-its-salt-with-24-7-power/

I don't know how CSPs are usually implemented, but some of the current solutions seem very bizarre trying to focus all sunlight into a single tower instead of maximizing local absorption and finding a way to transport and store the heat efficiently.
>>
>>1592471
This solution probably also works for local microgrids and off-grid solutions for storing heat and generating electricity at the same time.

High density flywheel storage could have a similar use in hydro, tidal and wind power, but research about it seems slow.
>>
>>1592237
Catalysts for ammonia to hydrogen reactions:

https://phys.org/news/2018-04-catalyst-ammonia-fuel.html

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0926337317311906
>>
>>1592554
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jp410947d
>>
>>1574634
>>1592554
>>1592561
More about ammonia to hydrogen catalysts without rare metals:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/002195177690395X

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021951704001137

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0021951710002629

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0926860X05006538

Catalysts seem to have to be warmed up first, this delay can be compensated by letting the car run on batteries alone for some minutes. And similar solutions exist for reforming hydrocarbons:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HF-eE8pRzMw
>>
>>1579017
>>1585784
More "juiced" engines:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqyiDhK-X64

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owIWB6blMs0

https://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/general-aviation/2015-04-22/superior-developing-gemini-diesel-aircraft-engines

>>1585904
And no problems with lack of oxygen due to turbocharging.
>>
>>1592642
And research about ammonia fuel cells is progressing:

https://phys.org/news/2019-08-ammonia-fuel-cells.html
>>
>>1592943
Ammonia is really toxic.
>>
>>1592642
>>1592731
Sabatier process methanol is where it's at.
>>
>>1592958
Most fuels are.
>>
>>1592986
But ammonia will wipe out a town
>>
>>1592959
It's not that hard to synthesize and there are fuel cells and combustion engines for it, but it would trigger the anti-carbon retards and it seems to be more expensive and less widely available.
I doubt it's possible to replace oil, which was shoved into everything (((they))) could, with a single or few solutions.
Anything that isn't jewish or normie nonsense has to be considered.

>>1592958
>>1592990
Gay.
>>
>>1592959
Related:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364032119301613

There are other ways to synthesize methanol:
>>1588071

Direct synthesis still requires hydrogen (from many possible sources) and CO2 from the air or from byproducts of other processes, so it has a similar role to ammonia (hydrogen and nitrogen) and others.
>>
>>1588426
"Juiced":

https://phys.org/news/2011-09-pair-ammonia-fuel-cars-cents.html
>>
>>1566172
I don't believe in electric powered flight, and i think it's only because of brute force and successfull marketing Tesla seems as a viable option. Much like the picture of the Airbus concepts, i'm much more inclined to support the hydrogen option for both flight and vehicles. But people seem to be the hurdle, most uneducated just remembers hydrogen as the thing that explodes and kills, and electric as a safe resource, that we have in our walls too. Somebody needs to figure out how to change that image, as people don't care about stuff such as akkumulators (or batteries with s for plural, *sigh*) having a horrible energy density to weight ratio, and unviable resource industry, when stuff labeled as hydrogen has to potential to kill thousands, if not millions, each time a car drive over a bump in the road.
>>
>>1593099
Normies don't care about being environmentally friendly, neither the jews behind this bullshit, because all it would take to do it would be forcing fuels to be properly filtered and engines to have better catalysts and slight modifications.

But there are advantages here that aren't being discussed in technologies that aren't Lithium crap. Low noise, very low maintenance, high reliability, cheap running costs, maybe more affordable cars in the future (small EVs are already very cheap in Asia), potential for cutting dependency on (((oil))) and decentralizing energy production, or not even paying for energy anymore, it can easily integrate very advanced safety features, it can be used by smaller garages to retrofit existing vehicles or create custom ones much easier than existing technology, ...

Safety features that are very expensive in mechanical drivetrains but affordable in electric ones include: torque vectoring, ABS, traction control, slippage prevention in extreme situations, motor and power supply redundancy so if one part of the car breaks down, the rest goes on normally, ...

Most (sometimes all) of those practical advantages also apply to hydrogen and other alternative fuels. Or even to fuel cell vehicles using regular fuels.
>>
>>1593154
Real solutions to the problem aren't even being discussed:

https://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=287891

In a normal diesel engine, even when the chamber as a whole is overall lean, combustion is actually occurring near stoichiometric adjacent to the surface of droplets, at a temperature that can be much higher than the average temperature in the chamber. This leads to high NOx formation in a traditional diesel engine with a direct-injection layout.

How do you reduce that temperature -> first approach was to introduce dilution into the cylinder in the form of exhaust-gas recirculation when the engine is running at part load. Technically it is quite straightforward to do, and EGR has been used on automotive diesel engines since the early 1990's.

But there is another approach ... Intentionally delay ignition until after the fuel has substantially evaporated so that it is no longer burning near stoichiometric, but is burning in a lean manner throughout the chamber. And how do you do *that*? Homogeneous-charge compression ignition is one way but it's hard to make it work outside the laboratory. Another way is to use extremely high injection pressure so that the fuel is finely atomized, and do the injection in multiple stages. Sounds like a modern common-rail diesel engine ... or the "supercritical combustion" concept that there was recent discussion of.
>>
>>1593193
(continuing)

As I understand it, part of the idea is to inject the first shot of fuel well before top-dead-center so that it has lots of time to evaporate and mix with the charge air. That shot of fuel burns in a premixed manner. Then you inject another shot of fuel, which evaporates much more quickly because of the now-raised temperature in the chamber but also when that combustion occurs in a dropwise manner, the surrounding environment is already partially diluted with products of combustion from the first shot of combustion. Then you inject yet another shot and this happens again. This concept is also compatible with EGR for additional dilution to get the peak temperature below the NOx formation threshold.

--

Also fuel cell vehicles need pure air to work, they are equipped with a filter that can retain particulates and other pollution. I don't know if a similar technology can be used on exhausts.
>>
>>1593099
>when stuff labeled as hydrogen has to potential to kill thousands, if not millions, each time a car drive over a bump in the road.
It looks like any interesting solution in the near future (if they will exist) will use a carrier liquid or solid for hydrogen, and this can be used for marketing purposes.

Now airships, maybe some videos showing some safety tests since it requires a lot of safety mechanisms and they need to be tested by the R&D team anyway.
>>
>>1593199
This triggered some people here months ago:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9LnrNiHC_34
>>
>>1592642
Maybe electrolysis can be a solution, ammonia can be dissolved and become a cation:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonium#Acid%E2%80%93base_properties

And use electrolysis:

http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=18912#pid237843

This in theory seems to require small amounts of energy, but in practice most times it doesn't.

Electrooxidation is also an option:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2451910318300085
>>
>>1593154
And in case of smaller vehicles, it's more compact. For example, most weight, cost and volume of electric motorcycles comes from its batteries, any energy storage with proper density will reduce this a lot.

From: https://www.motorcycle.com/features/inside-batteries-mo-interviews-zero-motorcycles-senior-battery-specialist-luke-workman-video.html
>>
>>1593472
The amount of energy stored inside the bigger battery packs from Zero is 14.4 kwh, the equivalent of about half kilogram of hydrogen, about 1 kg of natural gas (compressed to 6 liters), gasoline or diesel, 1.5 kg of ethanol or quality coal, 3 kg of methanol, shitty coal (assuming best case), wood or ammonia or 6 kg of the aluminum flow battery mentioned previously or shitty coal (assuming worst case), without considering the efficiency of the fuel cell or generator being used or any reduction in weight.
Or 70 kg of (((Lithium-ion))) batteries.
>>
>>1593476
0.5 kg of hydrogen can be compressed in a volume of 21 L (at 350 bar) or 13L (at 700 bar). Average motorcycles have a 12 to 16 liter tank.
>>
>>1592082
An Aluminum-Air battery capable of about 2000 Wh/kg of energy density:

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/9/2275

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenrg.2020.00189/full

Another one with 3595.4 Wh/kg:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1385894720329004?via%3Dihub

A wearable version with 2766.9 Wh/kg:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2405829720303871?via%3Dihub

Some methods involving the storage and use of aluminum could be borrowed from the hydrogen or fuel solutions:
>>1584310
>>1585223
>>1585327
>>1587505
>>1588118
>>1592082

Using metal powders instead of metal plates improved the performance of some solutions based on Aluminum and Zinc before, and it may help an external recharging process.
>>
>>1566172
Avionics on smartphones and tablets:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5EyxTI8fL34

You can have redundancy by keeping a backup Android or Apple device around, it uses the internal inaccurate sensors of your Android/Apple in case the sensor box fails and you can keep the analog gages and/or another dedicated backup avionics.

Flight recorders and autopilots can be made more affordable by using the same design philosophy, I found some of those once.
>>
>>1593999
Cars have an engine monitoring system called ODB, there are many accessories and applications around it and many it's enough for light aviation, if it isn't being used already.
>>
>>1566172
A very experimental example:

https://experimentalavionics.com/can-bus-data-logger/

Autopilot for GA:

https://www.xcruze.net
>>
>>1593999
>>1594004
>>1594015
Another example:

https://www.xflighttech.com/

Replacing Linux (and maybe Raspberry Pi) with something else is very important for reliability, responsiveness and affordability, but it might not be possible.
>>
>>1594048
Arduino seems to support everything necessary if you use simplified software internals, but maybe it doesn't have enough functionality, performance or memory. For example:

https://dronebotworkshop.com/touchscreen-arduino/

And it also supports CAN bus, storage, radio, WiFi, Bluetooth (preferred over WiFi for this), RS-232, ...
>>
>>1594048
An explanation for people who don't know how what are the differences between the platforms:

https://www.electronicshub.org/raspberry-pi-vs-arduino/

https://beebom.com/arduino-vs-raspberry-pi/
>>
>>1594048
>>1594153
>>1594359
Arduino is based on a popular microcontroller that is used inside many electronics, so it comes with useful functions, such as automatic resetting in case of software or hardware failure:

https://circuits4you.com/2018/01/24/tutorial-on-arduino-watchdog-timer-setup/

And get power from small rechargeable batteries (some peripherals can't be powered this way):

https://www.adafruit.com/product/2078
>>
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>>1571226
Kubas-type hydrogen storage uses low pressure, has high density and doesn't require too much energy to bind or unbind hydrogen.
Ammonia has a much higher weight of hydrogen contained on it, but it's more troublesome to synthesize or dissociate.
Metal-based hydrogen storage is never discussed anywhere for some reason.

From:

Hydrogen Storage for Mobility: A Review

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630991/
>>
>>1593472
Electric motorcycles have shit ranges.

My v strom can go 300 miles at 80 mph. I can strap 2 one gallon cans of gas to it. Which will let me go innawoods for a couple days. Then get back out to a gas station.
>>
>>1594798
And anything that could improve range never gets implemented either on electric cars or motorcycles:

https://newatlas.com/motorcycles/nawa-racer-supercapacitor-ultracapacitor-hubless-electric-motorcycle/

(there are other ultra, super, hybrid, ... capacitors capable of replacing this one or maybe the whole battery)

And hub motors, magnetless motors, lighter materials and designs, alternative cell formats, other batteries/capacitors that don't need the BMS, cooling, fire hazard and other babysitting...
>>
>>1594824
Hub motors are a terrible choice. They increase unsprung mass. Which degrades suspension performance.
>>
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>>1594824
Or a platform that doesn't look like it was inspired by a toy car.
>>
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>>1594826
Shalom. Thanks for repeating this obvious lie that can be easily checked by any search engine again.

>>1594830
A real platform from a "juiced" car that had almost the same cost as the shitty Model S, but years ago (it had traction on the 4 wheels).
>>
>>1594835
Unsprung mass is bad for suspension performance, this isn't a mystery. But considering how many cars have horribly stiff suspensions with heavy wheel brake rotors (instead of inboard brakes) and overly thin sidewalls, it seems suspension performance is not a priority for most people.

As for electric aircraft, I believe there's a good chance for practical energy transmission at high altitudes as the air is much purer and thinner and so transmission losses are significantly reduced.
>>
>>1566172
fuck it lol can it be any more deadly than what we've got now
>>
>>1566172
full retard
>>
>>1588022
An article about detonation inside ICE engines:

LES study of deflagration to detonation mechanisms in a downsized spark ignition engine

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010218015001212
>>
>>1594979
Use a search engine and look for the weight of all prototypes so far. It's almost always the same as a regular wheel and the technology doesn't use any motors with very high power-to-weight ratios yet.
What you wrote is replied every time hub motors are mentioned everywhere for some reason.

> As for electric aircraft, I believe there's a good chance for practical energy transmission at high altitudes as the air is much purer and thinner and so transmission losses are significantly reduced.
This is interesting. I would rather use real batteries or proper fuels, but this can be used for other applications such as low altitude satellite replacements powered by recharging drones.

>>1595161
More about it:

http://quasiturbine.promci.qc.ca/ETheoryDetonationEngine.htm

Mazda released a HCCI engine:
https://www.mazda.com/en/innovation/mazda-stories/engineers/skyactiv-x/
>>
>>1594991
Boeing airplanes used to be quite decent, who nose what happened to them.
>>
>>1595172
The same as a regular wheel is obviously impossible, unless they are quoting the weight of the wheel separate from engine.

Assuming a power to weight ratio of 12 kW/kg (and that's nearly as good as it gets), you're talking of carrying at least 5 kg per wheel for a total of 240 kW of power, which is adequate if not very impressive for the weight of an electric vehicle (slighly more than a base model 3). Assuming the tire and wheel weight around 10 kg each, respectively, it doesnt seem like much (a 25% increase, less if you consider the rest of the suspension and brake rotor), but the fact is these hub motors will have to be made sturdier to resist impacts so their unsprung weight will be significant. And they will need cooling working at those power densities.

People don't seem to mind fitting ridiculous large rims on cars, so you'll probably get away with hub motors on base cars (like low powered e-bikes already use), but for high performace cars outside of a track (which is so smooth you dont even need a suspension) it's unnaceptable, even in the best scenario.
>>
>>1595192
Search engine, (((bitch))), use it.
>>
>>1595340
Do you understand math or are you still in primary school? Post a link if you want me to make the math for you, but power to weight is a simple enough concept to understand.
>>
>>1595528
(((Gay))).

Your cousins are crapping all over the internet, including in research and technology pages, but I hope those web sites aren't jewshit:

https://www.addidrive.com/en/hydraulic-4x4-transmission
>>
>>1595616
...that's not a hub motor, the motors are in the main body where you would normally fit the differential and are linked to the wheels through driveshafts, it's made clear in the image.
>>
>>1595687
It's unrelated, kippah tipper.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel_hub_motor#Weight_savings

A good example of this is the Michelin Active Wheel motor as fitted to the Heuliez Will, the first electric car with an Active Wheel drive, which results in an unsprung weight of 35 kg on the front axle and which compares favorably to a small car such as a Renault Clio that has 38 kg of unsprung weight on its front axle.

https://www.motortrend.com/cars/honda/civic/2018/orbis-honda-civic-type-r-awd-review/

The whole point of this crazy wheel-reinvention is to eliminate the unsprung weight that has prevented widespread adoption of in-wheel or hub-mounted motors to date (Ferdinand Porsche first proposed the idea in 1897). That SAE-show prototype's corners still weighed some 20 pounds more than the Honda parts, but a summer spent beavering away on computers and CNC milling machines has managed to completely erase the unsprung weight penalty. Yes, the entire metal and machinery clockworks you see framed within the new wheel rim weighs precisely as much as the Honda-spec tire, wheel, brake system, hub, and knuckle that left the Swindon factory. And none of the weight loss came from using costly or exotic materials.
>>
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>>1595687
And you are gay.
>>
>>1595616
It can have regenerative breaking and be driven by an electric pump instead of ICEs:

https://www.car-engineer.com/bosch-hydraulic-hybrid-powertrain-developped-with-psa/

Hydraulic technologies are very mature and well known, maybe they have some application to aircraft development (driving multiple propellers or rotors, or larger moving parts, for example).
>>
>>1588118
Related:

https://newatlas.com/energy/bavarian-brewery-carbon-free-renewable-iron-fuel/

Reminder metal fuels can be used as batteries, combustion fuel or hydrogen storage.
>>
>>1595616
>>1595741
>>1595787
https://auto.howstuffworks.com/hydraulic-hybrid.htm

https://tec.ieee.org/newsletter/february-2014/electric-hydraulic-hybrid-drivetrain-for-city-vehicles-a-novel-approach-to-on-board-energy-storage

In EVs you can use hydraulics for regenerative breaking and slow speeds, switching to electric motors at medium and high speeds.
This simplifies motor design and saves the battery from lots of charge and discharge cycles, it also recovers more energy from breaking.
>>
>>1572626
>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVPpi0pNP5Q

This idiots just re-invented the propeller, but worse.
>>
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>>1595740
The michelin active wheel motor has 40 hp, weighs 7 kg ( giving about 4kw/kg), saved unsprung weight using lightweight suspension (similar to a lancia aurelia), lightweight brakes (similar to audi 200 UFO brake disk) and alloy wheels (base model clio has steel wheels) which are not applied for cost reasons.

The orbis wheel has more potential since nobody really adapted the hubless wheel before despite sbarro´s efforts, mainly due to concerns over bearing life and toughness as when they are moved to the outer rim they have to deal with much higher linear speed differentials and are unable to tolerate any rim deformation (from hitting a pot hole, for example). I´m hoping they have improved on that front because they are really cool.

But once again, note how after all that work and even billet weight reduction, it only matches the unsprung weight of a regular type R wheel with a 50 hp wheel motor. I´m afraid people will want a lot more power than that on their heavy cars.

>>1595741
Fair enough, i didn´t see that there were two variants of the same system. However, note how the rear hub motors produce at max 12 kW per rear wheel, showing once again that the unsprung weight penalty is only acceptable for low amounts of power.
>>
>>1595962
Just fucking die already, I'm tired of (((you))).

>>1596104
(((You))) hate this fact of life, but technology and knowledge keeps progressing if (((you))) don't poop all over everything.
>>
>>1569847
>>1587716
>>1592286
>>1592471
>>1589495
>>1589499
>>1591234
>>1592286
>>1592471
https://www.solarthermalworld.org/news/concrete-slabs-store-thermal-energy-and-heat-homes

Energy harvesting is still in its early days and being ignored for (((reasons))), but it's very promising.
The same applies to improving energy efficiency, better use of existing resources and other auxiliary strategies.
>>
>>1593999
>>1594048
Another direction this could go:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SFZbDjgbnXI
>>
>>1566172
What do you do when you have a power outage
>>
>>1596877
Nobody is talking about it, but electric vehicles would leave everyone exposed to some jew throwing a temper tantrum and cutting everybody's transportation.

Of course there are alternatives to this that normies and their histrionic masters will ignore completely.
>>
As a regular plane flies, it becomes lighter by spending fuel.

As a electric plane flies, it maintains all of its weight since take off.
>>
>>1597331
So the pilot would need to plan ahead and leave some of the batteries behind before takeoff, or refill only as necessary in case of flow batteries.

The autonomy would suffer too, since maybe the plane relies on losing weight to get further. And landing would be messier with more weight than usual.
>>
>>1594015
A mature implementation with 3D maps, traffic data, ...

http://stratux.me

https://f-droid.org/en/packages/player.efis.cfd
>>
>>1597324
You can recharge your electric vehicle with some solar panels and an inverter. You can't make your own gasoline
>>
>>1587483
Related:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gkblppESHA

>>1598794
But you can make other fuels. And off-grid energy usually is shit unless you make your own stuff.
>>
>>1598794
Making methane and methanol in the backyard from wood is straightforward, other fuels probably require more complicated processes.
>>
>>1598855
It depends on the source of energy and base materials.
This is the reason I'm shilling hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and metal fuels. They don't trigger the anti-carbon cult and they are simple to make with modern processes.

>>1598853
It seems to be possible to change the shape of the detonation, exploring ways to do this could result in more efficient PDEs.

Oblique Detonation Wave Engine: Preliminary Design and Performance Prediction

https://www.sjsu.edu/ae/docs/project-thesis/Calvin.Nguyen-S18-Edited.pdf
>>
>>1587276
>>1590095
https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/magnetic-geared-dual-rotor-reluctance-electric-machines-ion-boldea-lucian-tutelea/10.1201/9780429458316-13

Magnetic-geared dual-rotor reluctance machines are also flux-modulation machines. Their two rotors provide for a magnetic-gear effect that may increase the torque/volume in low-speed high-torque applications, but at the inevitable cost of notable additional PM weight/Nm, though at acceptable efficiency. But the elimination of mechanical transmission by using a magnetic gear capable of more than 100 Nm/liter is considered encouraging in pursuing the development of compact low-speed high-torque pseudodirect drives with MG-REMs.

https://macsphere.mcmaster.ca/handle/11375/16570

A prototype double rotor machine of the segmented rotor design is constructed and tested to benchmark an existing double rotor switched reluctance machine. The experiment results show that the proposed design is able to achieve the same output with similar or higher efficiency than the benchmark machine, while occupying only about 60% of overall volume. The double segmented rotor switched reluctance machine demonstrates to be a promising double rotor topology and is worth further research.
>>
>>1566172
Using an emulsion of water and fuel is already available for existing diesel engines, maybe it can be used in jet fuel nowadays:

https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA054967

And there are many additives and processes that could be tested, specially ones that were already attempted on diesel engines.
>>
>>1590286
rent free.
>>
>>1587374
Hydrogen generators also release oxygen and it can be easily separated. It's also a very efficient process so most of the consumed energy is still available to be used in a heating system, generator or other chemical reaction.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aRpquuToJgY
>>
>>1599675
Some comments about related research I found:
> other researchers also tested this on jet fuel, but most research is about diesel
> the amount of water can be very high, from 5% to 40%, both on diesel and jet A
> if you need a stable fuel for storage, lots of emulsifiers are necessary
> if you have a mixing apparatus onboard (steam emulsifier, shear mixer, ultrasonic mixer, ...), only water and fuel can be used, mixed and sent to the engine
> the results are sensitive to which mixing process, emulsifiers and other details are chosen
> there are many improvements in emissions, temperature, fuel consumption, costs, ...
> it's a very old concept that got "juiced"
> usually unmodified engines are used, but in this research from the 70's it didn't work
>>
>>1599751
There are other methods to obtain pure oxygen:

https://archive.nyafuu.org/n/thread/1536572/#1561493

Metal-Air batteries also need pure oxygen in one of their electrodes, using air filters to obtain it:

https://www.technology.matthey.com/article/62/2/134-149/

Of course there are other electrodes, air filters, metals, electrolytes, ... not mentioned in this overview. And the incomplete list of metals shows there are other promising alternatives to Aluminum, Zinc, Iron and Lithium, which are the most commonly used. Specially when it comes to efficiency and complexity of recharge.
>>
>>1566172
Compressed natural gas requires less changes, but this still looks viable:

http://gjar.org/publishpaper/vol2issue2/d154r58.pdf

The difference between a hydrogen ICE from a traditional gasoline engine could include hardened valves and valve seats, stronger connecting rods, non-platinum tipped spark plugs, higher voltage ignition coil, fuel injectors designed for a gas instead of a liquid, larger crankshaft damper, stronger head gasket material, modified (for supercharger) intake manifold, positive pressure supercharger, and a high temperature engine oil. All modifications would amount to about one point five times (1.5) the current cost of a gasoline engine. These hydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline engines do. The power output of a direct injected hydrogen engine vehicle is 20% more than in a gasoline engine vehicle and 42% more than a hydrogen engine vehicle using a carburetor. Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different from hydrogen fuel cell cars. The hydrogen internal combustion car is a slightly modified version of the traditional gasoline internal combustion engine car. These hydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline engines do.

Mazda has developed Wankel engines burning hydrogen. The advantage of using ICE (internal combustion engine) like Wankel and piston engines is the cost of retooling for production is much lower. Existing-technology, ICE can still be applied for solving those problems where fuel cells are not a viable solution insofar, for example in cold-weather applications. ICE has been demonstrated based on converting diesel internal combustion engines with direct injection.
>>
>>1590204
Similar idea:

https://hackaday.com/2019/10/12/flying-batteries-for-drones/





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