>What language(s) are you learning?>Share language learning experiences!>Ask questions about your target language!>Help people who want to learn a new language!>Participate in translation challenges or make your own!>Make frens!Read this shit some damn time:https://4chanint.fandom.com/wiki/The_Official_/int/_How_to_Learn_A_Foreign_Language_Guide_WikiTotally not a virus, but rather, lots of free books on languages:https://mega.nz/#F!x4VG3DRL!lqecF4q2ywojGLE0O8cu4ALots of books on linguistics of various kinds, as well as language courses:https://mega.nz/#F!Ad8DkLoI!jj_mdUDX_ay-8D9l3-DbnQCheck this pastebin for plenty of language resources as well as some nice image guides:https://pastebin.com/ACEmVquaTorrents with more resources than you'll ever need for 30 plus languages:https://yuki.la/t/796928List of trackers for most language learning packs:https://files.catbox.moe/nmrn8x.txtUkrainianon's list of commercial courses from rutracker.org:https://pastebin.com/3EWMhSPNRussianon's list of comprehensible input resources:https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wXd0V32TjCFsr1-F_en_lA4MI-i7JtyYf26cWLtPRecFAQ U:>How do I learn a language? What is the best way to learn one? How should I improve on certain aspects?Read the damn wiki>Should I learn lang Y so I can learn lang X?No>What is the most useful language?Swememe>What language should I learn?SwememeOld thread >>139861751Old challenge >>lmao
First for abkhazia
>>139958687Second for I suggest my /int/ friends to learn a kind of shorthand. I like Henry Sweet's current shorthand
Bonjour à tous !Bonan tagon al ĉiuj!Glidis!
>>139960043Bonan tagon al vi. Kiel vi fartas?
how do you study grammar?
>>139958687is this real? the dutch have always been very practical
Oi, frog niggas, my imported anki deck says that toit = patient, this is dead mudda fuckin wrong right?
>>139962072Yeah, toit is roof.
>>139958984Do Germans limit the Latinized terms to discussion about the war? I remember reading about 'Innere Emigration' of certain Germans
>>139962323Tanks ;DDDDAlso, why do you guys have the same word for straight (as in straight ahead) and right (both in law and direction)
>>139962450Obviously languages are not only a different set of sounds and vocabulary but a method of thought. In English, to live (in a place) and to live (life) is the same while you have 'habiter' (to live in a place) and vivre (to live life)(french anon will now come and tell me how wrong I am)
>>139962887what langauge you learning iraqi bro?
>>139962450For the same reason right (opposite of left), right (opposite of wrong) and right (like having the right to do something) is the same word.
Irish anons, do I need to pronounce the soft l or is it something I can skip over?
Proto-celtic is just gaelic with latin suffixis
>>139963364You should.It's very easy.This is for Scottish Gaelic but it's the same for L, N, R. http://www.akerbeltz.org/index.php?title=Liquids_or_-_L_N_R_in_Gaelic
>>139963384>made-up language is made-upwho would have thought
>>139963027Just posting here out of boredom. I know enough French to communicate with kindergartners, so I'd work on that before learning anything else
>>139963532>gaelic and latin are madeup
>>139963494Thanks, so how different is scottish gealic compared to irish?
>>139963765It is slightly more conservative than Irish.They aren't very intellible but you could roughly talk.
>>139963945I've read that the eastern dialects of SG and western irish dialetcs can kind of understand eachother, also do you speak standard SG or a dialect?
>>139963145Yeah but If I was telling someone where to go and I said "au droite" How would they know what I meant?
>>139964346They would be pretty confused, because 'au droit' doesn't mean anything. 'à droite' is to the right, and 'tout droit' is straight ahead.
>>139964133"standard".Basically a non-dialect which, more historically, could be understood by all Scottish dialects.The ones in the Southern Hebrides are similar to Ulster ones.
>>139964133>western irish dialetcsThere are western Irish dialects?
>>139962265mi longe penis :DDD
>>139964512Interesting, do you speak it natively? And how is the language fairing in scotland? Is it growing or declining?>>139964521Yes in N.I there
Yo frogs what is this "a-t-il" shit?
>>139964789Non-native.Mass decline. Probably dead in 15 years or less.
>>139965072Two vowels one after another that both have to be distinct, joined using a tenuis consonant (I think)
>>139965336>Probably dead in 15 years or less.sad that Scotland will probably become independent just to throw their culture away
>>139965072a-il sounds dumbwait until you learn about dussé-je, pussé-je, eussé-je and fussé-je.
Is anyone else here irrationally upset by trigraphs, tetragraphs and onwards? Digraphs I can tolerate but when you consistently need 3 letters in a row to represent a single sound I just can't deal with the inefficiency.
>>139965487>their cultureGaelic hasn't been Scotland's main culture since the 14th century.
>>139965629It's either that or diacritic hell.
>>139965629>>139965855... or developing a new tailor-made script.
>>139965810still, it will be sad to see the language (even as a minority tongue) die
>>139965622Why is there an acute accent over the last e? But people don't really use these in speech do they?
Also on the topic of French tenses I saw a writer from the seventies describes the principle modes as passé defini, passé indefini, passé anterieur, parfait (prétérit parfait), and imparfait. Is this just outdated terminology for the simple, composé, and plus-que-parfait (along with accurate terms for the anterieur and imparfait)?
https://youtu.be/5Uo-B9GaciQCan portuguese or spanish speakers understand mirandese? It seems like an interesting language
>>139966432I can understand a bit but their accent is really strong
>>139966432I forgot to add that my grandfather (who speaks it) claims that he was able to communicate with Italians using it better than with portuguese, i don't really believe him though, maybe he's exaggerating
do slow spanish speakers even exist?
>>139966680i could understand it better if they spoke a bit more slowly, but idk
>>139966894slow people exist everywhere anonthey're the majority of the world, in fact:^)
>>139965954It's one of those weird orthographic conventions, it's pronounced the same way as 'er' as in 'parler'>people don't really use these in speech do they?Can you elaborate?>>139966894>disfrutocuandolosgringosnoentiendenloquedigo jajajajaja
>>139966616>>139966941Foste capaz de entender todas as ideias ou só entendeste algumas palavras? A dificuldade que tens com o sotaque pode ter a ver com o facto que brasileiros geralmente têm dificuldade em entender os sotaques de PortugalEu até entendo bem mas há muito que é incompreensível
Hello German learners, is it worth learning the Präteritum form for each verb or should I just go for the Perfekt? I am studying in order to obtain a B1
>>139967481Not learning the past tense won't stop it from showing up in the things you read and listen to. It's not like learning the past tense is particularly harder or less useful than learning how to form the perfekt anyway.
мeня paздpaжaeт чтo тaк мнoгo людeй нe изyчaютcя нacтoящий язык. oни пpocтo oбъявляют o их глyпoм opфoгpaфичecкoй peфopмe или кoнлeйнг кoтopый никтo нe гoвopит
>>139967731Yeah that makes, as for the difficulty I think that just learning the 1 version of the perfekt is easier than learning each conjugation which at times varies a lot. But yea I think that I’ll also have a go with the präteritum, so that I won’t have any surprises
>>139965954>Why is there an acute accent over the last e?because it's pronounced \e\ for example dusse is pronounced \dys\ so dusse-je would be pronounced \dysʒə\ which sounds bad, so we say dussé-je.
>>139966308this is still used.
>learning two languages at the same timeishygddt
is this the best condenser app? it's very easy to use but not open source so I'm a little hesitant.
>>139967105I've never heard a speaker use the subjonctif imparfait, and I've seen it in literature scarcely. Even more dated literature it seems to me uses the subjonctif passé composé>>139968253So do you often use the tense?
/lit/ made a /lang/ thread>>>/lit/lang/what the fuck bros
>>139968796books is cringe
>>139968313Why do they name them défini and indéfini if you don't mind me asking?
>>139968713I use it more for auxillary and semi-auxillary verbs than for other verbs tbqh, but I do use it yeah
>>139968796they have one up every once in a while
>>139968870No fucking idea. I slept through most of my grammar courses in middle school.
>>139968796It's not as good because they don't have flags.
>>139969014flags are only good if you have a neutral flagthink of flags like mine. unlivable
>>139969066americans are pretty bullied on /int/ tbqh
>>139969066>a fucking starwoe is you
>>139969150>>139969240every random comment i make incites a race riot
how difficult is it for a person from Spain to understand someone from Cuba? Is it a different dialect?
Hey /int what’s the best course for learning French if you know some of the basics ie syntax, some conjugation
Used to browse /lit/ until last fall. Dislike it really, it's a little masturbatory. I browse its archives sometimes
>>139969150and rightly so
how the FUCK do I start learning Chinese bros?
>>139969424But that discussion at the end does bring up a good point. How do you find subtitles of foreign language movies in that foreign language?
>>139968131The perfect requires you to learn how to form the past participle and learn the correct auxiliary for each verb. The preterit requires you to learn the strong and weak past tense endings, and the past-stem of strong and irregular verbs. There is as much or more variation in the formation of the past participle than there is in the past-stem, both of them are key-forms that cannot consistently be derived for all verbs, and the perfect has the extra requirement of learning (often, memorizing) whether it use haben or sein. For my money, if one is harder than the other, it's the perfect.
>>139967171Entendi algumas palavras e ideias, mas nada 100% concreto e com certeza
ciao amici... parlate con me?
>>139968870>>139968979>The passé simple (French pronunciation: [pase sɛ̃pl], simple past, preterite, or past historic), also called the passé défini (IPA: [pase defini], definite past), is the literary equivalent of the passé composé in the French language, used predominantly in formal writing (including history and literature) and formal speech. As with other preterites, it is used when the action has a definite beginning and end and has already been completed. In writing it is most often used for narration. >The passé composé (French pronunciation: [paˈse kɔ̃poˈze], compound past) is the most used past tense in the modern French language. It is used to express an action that has been finished completely or incompletely at the time of speech, or at some (possibly unknown) time in the past.Haha I totally get it now totally :)))Our best bet is just using whatever sounds better, I imagine
>>139969708come stai, canadabro?
Mental I own indo-european inscriptions
>>139970063sto bene... devo praticare l'italiano oggi allora comincio adesso!Scrivo un po' su /int/ e dopo farò i miei compiticome stai amico bianco dall'Inghilterra?
>>139970197sto bene, perchè stai imparando l'italiano? le persone mi dice che l'italiano è una scelta strana.
>>139970488Non lo so il motivo che quelle persone dicono così ma ho scelto italiano perchè sono italiano canadese e vorrei insegnare i miei figli futuri la lingua dei nostri antenatiin corto...>muh ancestors e tu? sei italiano che vivi in Inghilterra o semplicemente un bong?
>>139966432Honestly, it sounds like the standard transmontano accent with a few random spanish words thrown in there.Some people might find it hard to understand, but I think that's more because of the transmontano accent, which is quite thick by nature. I understand it well enough because I've spent a lot of time in that region.>>139966680It's possible, the transmontano pronunciation/intonation is somewhat close to galician/spanish, even though it's portuguese (it's closer than to Spanish than the Lisbon or Porto accents are (to Spanish), eg). If he was speaking mirandese, he's even closer to Spanish, and Spanish is closer to Italian than standard Portuguese is to ItalianIt also depends on where the italians were from, there are some regions/dialects where their language is much closer to Spanish than standard Italian is to Spanish.Anyway, if the perfect storm happens, your grandfather probably would have an easier time speaking to the Italians in Mirandese, but he's probably still greatly overstating that easiness.
>>139965954From my experience studying in frogland, the middle class will think you are a faggot, the rich will think you are a tryhard, but the scholars will masturbate with you.
>>139965926The moment I saw German 'sch's transliterated into a single letter in Cyrillic I fell in love with tailor-made scripts.Too bad that a language will always evolve beyond its script or make part of it redundant.
>>139970197>picHo lo stesso telecomando, kek
>>139971110coolsei italiano che vivi in Portogallo?
>>139970197Sono solo un bong ma il mio patrigno è italiano (anche se non parla italiano) e abito in una città con molti italiani, una delle più grandi popolazioni italiane fuori Londra. Sono più italiano degli altri inglesi suppongo. da dove vieni (di sangue) in italia?
>>139971408>da dove vieni (di sangue) in italia?mio padre è calabrese e mia madre è da Campania Di dov'è il tuo patrigno?
Goeie middag vriende. I started reading Colloquial Afrikaans. I am still learning all of the sounds, but have learned some words to learn the sounds in context.
>>139971710desidero che Canada permettebbe gli Afrikaans qui.
>>139971292Vorrei.Sono solo un povero portoghese che sta imparando la lingua.
>>139971849va bene porkchopCome stai? Quanti mesi hai studiato finora?
>>139971616Emilia-Romagna anche se è venuto in Inghilterra quando era giovane. Mi fa pensare a quanto siano diverse le lingue del nord e del sud Italia
>>139972133>sianoperchè hai messo SIANO e non SONO?
>>139972133anche... ho sentito il dialetto Calabrese è un disatro
>>139969467Assimilhttps://lukesmith.xyz/articles/chineseDuolingo for now and then (it's the first duolingo course I've usde for more than five minutes)At least that's what I'm doing.
>>139969467start by learning the radicals, then the most common characters, then start reading easy stuffhttps://hskreading.com/beginner/
>>139971943Mesi? Ho cominciato ad imparare anni fa, tuttavia non ho disciplina e non sono mai stato serio su migliorare il mio italiano.Chi sei tu? Non ti ho mai visto quà.
>>139972470il congiuntivo ma forse mi sbaglio
>>139972580kek, i miei amici italiani odiano i dialetti meridionali
>>139972900Ho inizato ad imparare per ... quartto or cinque mesi fa?... penso!Frequento /int/ durante il weekend>>139973212non lo so congiuntivo ancora allora non sono sicuro che hai fatto un errore o no... non è importante... cosa hai fatto oggi?
>>139968060B ocнoвнoм, тaк дeлaют aмepикaнцы, кoтopым лeнь вклaдывaть ycилия, тpeбyeмыe для coвepшeнcтвoвaния в peaльнoм языкe, кoтopый для них oбычнo являeтcя втopым, и oни дyмaют, чтo мoгyт тaким oбpaзoм пpиoбщитьcя к лингвиcтичecкoмy cooбщecтвy, пpи этoм, пo cyти, ничeгo нe дeлaя
>>139973290lo è vero... ho sentito che gli italiani del Nord odiano gli italiani del Sud e vice versaMa dobbiamo reindirizzare quest'odio alle nuove e più importanti cose lol
Изyчeниe книг пo гpaммaтикe этo caмoe oтcтaлыe peшeния, кoтopыe мoжнo пpинять.Я нe тpaчy вpeмя нa фopмaльнyю peчь, пoтoмy чтo знaю, чтo никoгдa нe бyдy eю пoльзoвaтьcя.
>>139970939>Honestly, it sounds like the standard transmontano accent with a few random spanish words thrown in there.É capaz de ser muito parecido com o português às vezes, mas o meu avô gosta de dizer-me sobre "o que diziam na sua terra" e muitas vezes não entendo o que ele diz sem traduzir para português>which is quite thick by nature. Normalmente não tenho dificuldade em entender os meus familiares de lá, se calhar é porque habituei-me ao sotaque deles mas há outros sotaques com os quais tenho problemas>If he was speaking mirandese, he's even closer to Spanish, and Spanish is closer to Italian than standard Portuguese is to ItalianPode ser que isso ajude mas ele afirma que no seu "dialeto" há muitas palavras italianas. Faz-me duvidar o que ele diz com respeito a isso>your grandfather probably would have an easier time speaking to the Italians in MirandesePois, mas a cena é que não acho que ajude tanto quanto ele diz. Falar muito devagar em português provavelmente teria o mesmo efeito acho eu>>139969610Interessante, obrigado por responderes>>139966432Now that there are some Italian speakers here, could you see if there is any truth to what my grandfather says?
>>139973664>Ma dobbiamo reindirizzare quest'odio alle nuove e più importanti cose lol si, è strano come queste identità sono ancora così forti
>>139968796Many of them are learning just so they can read, so their goals are different.
>>139974290mi dispiace... sono andato in bagnoMeh... hanno culture diverse ma ora c'è qualcosa di molto peggio
>>139973467>Frequento /int/ durante il weekendBasato non NEET che lavora durante la settimana e non ha tempo per venire qui. Perchè stai imparando l'italiano?>>139973720>ele afirma que no seu "dialeto" há muitas palavras italianasTalvez porque metade do vocabulário português/mirandês/espanhol/italiano é muito semelhante ou igual, lol. O teu avô está a exagerar muito, essas conversas com italianos devem ter sido há tanto tempo que está a vê-las pelos "óculos rosados"Btw, ele alguma vez voltou à zona de Miranda do Corvo? Tu alguma vez lá foste? >Now that there are some Italian speakers here, could you see if there is any truth to what my grandfather says?I don't think that will work since they don't have a video of the same people saying the same things in plain portuguese, it'll just sound like normal portuguese gibberish to them.
>>139974961sto imparando perchè...>>139970746E tu?
>>139974961>>139974290HOW THE FUCK DO YOU DO THE EMAIL ''AT'' SYMBOL ON THE ITALIAN QWERTY KEYBOARD?!?!?!?!
Are people putting effort into making AAVE a real lang, or is it even realistic idea? It seems like they would have to do so much to get it to that point, since they would have to at least- loan words from (American) Spanish and local dialects- completely drop aux "do" and modals in favor of quasimodals (finna, hafta, gonna)- lose almost all verb conjugation and either have only a perfect of imperfect tense across most/all aspects- change their orthography to how they write- completely lose the genitive caseYou can argue that some of this is in the middle of happening, but until someone writes a book or publishes something written in a new "standard", I think remain as just a label and a larp.
>>139975348>genitive casesomeone here is larping, and it’s not AAVE supporters
>>139975159>E tu?Onestamente ormai non so. All'inizio mi piaceva come la lingua suonava e voleva molto andare in Italia, ma ora non so. Ancora voglio andare in Italia, ma non tanto come prima>>139975267Così @, fra
>>139975538Who would that be?
>english has casesNo it doesn't you fucking retard.
>>139975348>- completely lose the genitive caseCan't lose what you don't have lmao
>>139973703Гpaммaтикa cтaнoвитcя бoлee вaжнo пocлe этoгo кaк y тeбя ecть cильный ocнoвы. Ho ecли ты yзнaeшь гpaммaтикy paнo, Bce бyдeт бoлee лeгкo нa бyдyщeм.
>>139975676>Ancora voglio andare in Italia, ma non tanto come primaperchè COVID? >Così @, fraSi ma come si fa su keyboard? Quali keys sono?
>>139975711>take me pen>went to friend houseGenitive case free english is beautiful
>>139975694What would you call it then?
>>139975348nobody’s trying to make AAVE a language, they just want people to recognize it as a dialect rather than incorrect speech
>>139974961>essas conversas com italianos devem ter sido há tanto tempo que está a vê-las pelos "óculos rosados"Pois, está sempre a falar sobre o quão boa era a sua terra mas mudou-se para aqui...>Btw, ele alguma vez voltou à zona de Miranda do Corvo? Tu alguma vez lá foste? Miranda do Corvo não, a região chama-se Miranda do Douro e sim, ele já voltou várias vezes e fui lá uma vez. Gostaria de voltar um dia mas já não há quase ninguém na sua aldeia portanto não sei>it'll just sound like normal portuguese gibberish to them.Tens razão, mas porquê não perguntar (=
>>139958687>Pica whore IS a rental tho.
>>139975869Also if any Russian speakers want to critique my grammar and word choice in this post I would appreciate it.
>>139975893it’s a possessive marker, if it were truly a case then you couldn’t have sentences like “the cat in the house’s fur is wet”, in english, ‘s modifies that entire noun phrase, if it were a case, then that suffix would have to go on the actual noun cat. You’re the one larping that english grammar is super complex and that AAVE would have to lose several features to become a different language (no one’s arguing it’s a different language anyway)
>>139975893There's no inflection for case in English.
ho bisogno di fare una lista delle parole per la pratica ... flashcards!quando passo una nuova parola scriverò e doppo la aggiungerò alla mia lista!questo è basato?
>>139966432Honestly, this sounds just like hillbilly Spanish with Latin vestiges/Galician.
>>139970197>Hue is ðis meant to be funny?>Funny?
>>139976423Got it, thank you. I was under the impression that the purpose of AAVE was to eventually split off from English.>You’re the one larping that english grammar is super complex and that AAVE would have to lose several features to become a different language I never said it was super complex to start with, but it still is more simple in comparison
>>139975884>perchè COVID?Non, perchè il mio interesse si è ridotto. Non so esattamente perchè questo è successo, ma quindì, eccoci qui.>Quali keys sono?Non so, era un scherzo. Forse alt gr + 2 >a região chama-se Miranda do DouroEra isso que queria dizer. É uma região muito bonita, se tiveres oportunidade deves visitar o Douro Internacional.
>>139976874Did you understand it though?>Latin vestigesHow so?
>>139977502>Era isso que queria dizer. É uma região muito bonitaÉ mesmo uma terra muito bela, os penhascos à beira do rio são encantadores>se tiveres oportunidade deves visitar o Douro Internacional.Já devo ter estado lá, a aldeia dos meus avós é meio remota. Mas se puder, voltarei
>>139977502@!!!!!!!!!!!! got it!!!!!!!!!! GRAZIE BRUTTO PUZZO GRASSO NEGRO!se visito Portogallo, mi hai per un po'?
>>139978547>se visito Portogallo, mi hai per un po'?Se vado in Canada, sponsorizzi il mio visto di lavoro?
>>139978678kek... negro non possedo una casa ancora
>>139978678allora il mio amico... vado a tavolo e completerò i miei compiti... buonanotte e fuck jannies e trannies
https://youtu.be/VBqNQhGasZoCan someone tell me what language they speak in this video? A translation would be nice too.
does anyone care about having a perfect accent after reaching fluency? How would you go about it?
>>139977433Sorry, I just assumed complexity was the implication that’s my bad. Also to be fair, AAVE has more periphrastic aspects than general american
>>139980003Get a teacher that has native level proficiency and record yourself imitating words and phrases in the correct accent. Listen to your recordings and adjust. It really helps to have a somebody who is capable of explaining how to make sounds correctly in terms of tongue placement, mouth shape, etc., versus just speaking with a friend who speaks the language.
>>139980117Interesting. I had my suspicions.
>>139980003Make a list of specific phonetic differences between your language and the TL as to know what you're already saying correctly as isRecord yourself reading/saying a paragraphSee which sounds from the list you're getting wrongThen do shadowing and focus on those soundsOr you can just do shadowing and flail until you get something reasonably right, but the issue is that there will definitely be something, that one sound, that you will have to isolate anyway. Making that one wrong sound will prevent you from sounding like a native instantly
>want to learn a cool semi-obscure language like some Mayan or Nilotic language>it would be extremely impractical because I would have no one to speak it with and no media to consoomI suffer in the United States... why did my ancestors have to expel the indigenous population, I could be speaking Chickasaw right now...
Sven, vad är skillnaden mellan ä och e? Jag tror att de låter samma. Och, i den här videon säger de "jag" med en 'g', men jag lärde mig att "jag" låter som [jaː]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PO_4pQAnzVUbästa låter som "besta" för mig
Learning czech... why does ř have to exist? Just to make me sufferv
Indonesian is a really based language
>>139982684Redpill me on bahasa Indonesia. I heard there's a lot of Dutch vocab/influence, too
>>139981589>tzij.coerll.utexas(dot)edu/This website look useful and has audio clips. No language is impossible, you just have to put in more effort to make it work.
>tfw will never be C2
>>139983004>>tzij.coerll.utexas(dot)edu/Based, I actually learned a bit of K'iche' at one of those universities (but I've forgotten almost all of the vocabulary and only ever had a tenuous grasp of the grammar).
>>139983237It hurts. Sometimes I just wanna give up.
>>139982447>Sven, vad är skillnaden mellan ä och e? Jag tror att de låter samma.Om vi utgår från rikssvenska:Långt /e/ = [eː]Kort /e/ = [ɛ]Primärt /ä/ = [ɛ(ː)]Sekundärt /ä/ = [æː]Vad /ä/ anbelangar finns det vedertagna konventioner gällande vilken kvalitet som dyker upp var:väl = /ˈvɛːl/säll = /ˈsɛlː/äsch = /ˈæɧː/ära = /2ˈæːra/>Och, i den här videon säger de "jag" med en 'g',>en 'g'ett g...Bokstäver står i neutrum.>men jag lärde mig att "jag" låter som [jaː].Då har du lärt dig lite konstigt... det realiseras /jɑː/, eller mer specifikt [ˈʝɑː]; kvaliteten bakom ett långt /a/ är naturligtvis [ɑː]... men att realisera /ɡ/ i svanspositionen är egentligen hyperkorrekt, ja, men får ses som ett allofoniskt uttal. Från början kommer bortfallet av att sagda /g/ var frikativt, dvs [ɣ], vilket ledde till totalt bortfall.Jag skulle beskriva 'jag' såhär:[ˈʝɑː(ɡ)]/ˈja/ är också en möjlig variant i vardagligt tal, dock inte i rikssvenskan.>bästa låter som "besta" för mig'bästa' realiseras /2ˈbɛsːta/, eller mer specifikt [ˈbɛ᷆sːtʰâ].>>139979820Swedish, yes, like the Belgian pointed out.
>>139984289>Vad /ä/ anbelangar finns det vedertagna konventioner gällande vilken kvalitet som dyker upp var:Finns det en regel för kvaliteten jag ska använda? Eller måste jag memorera det?>men att realisera /ɡ/ i svanspositionen är egentligen hyperkorrekt, ja, men får ses som ett allofoniskt uttal.Så ska jag säga "jag" med ett g? Jag är fortfarande en nybörjare och jag jag använder inte svenska mycket.>'bästa' realiseras /2ˈbɛsːta/, eller mer specifikt [ˈbɛ᷆sːtʰâ].Det låter vettigt, cool.Tack så mycket!
>>139958687>those whores were sluttyYou could make a good bro rock, bro country and rap song about this
>>139985729>Finns det en regel för kvaliteten jag ska använda?Det finns som sagt konventioner... men vissa dialekter begagnar sig av blott den ena eller andra kvaliteten. Om du siktar på att tala som majoriteten dock, så bör du nog bekanta dig med sagda konventioner, vilket innebär att du nog får memorera en del.>Så ska jag säga "jag" med ett g?Jag hade rekommenderat /jɑː/.
>>139986038OK! Tack igen, jag ska se vad jag kan göra.
>la pause pipi
>>139987740based knock off dot poster
Can évanouissement be used as a synonym for 'fleetingness'? Or would French speakers not be able to look past its primary meaning.
>>139983498Also, Xiaomanyc is a youtuber that is fluent in Chinese. He recently learned Mayan and spent some time in the yucatan peninsula or Guatemala or something. I didn't watch any of the videos, but maybe he talks about the resources that he used.
What language should I learn and why?Atm I'm studying Japanese, French and Dutch.Additionally, if I should drop any of these, let me know.
>>139988734Isn't it a pain to study three all at once?
>>139988801Nah. I pace myself with my anki reps.
>>139989035How do you split up your time? Do you study all of them every day or do you have days for one lang and days for another?
i want to learn finnish, how to start?
>>139989168I study each every day (I should specify that most of my experience in this is from doing just Japanese and French, I only today started Dutch) for however long Anki tells me to
>>139981147>>139980424yes I know youtube has a lot of material on how to make sounds with mouth shape and tongue placement. How long would it take to be almost indistinguishable from a native from c2?But you didn't answer my first question. Do you care?for example I don't care since my accent is good enough and I'm over english and learning a 3rd language. Some people might think there's a charm to a distinguishable accent, etc. I'm just curious.
>tfw realized I can't understand a French TV show 100% Maybe it's because of specialized vocab. Or maybe I need to learn more about colloquial or spoken French.
>>139989586Start with resources in OP, Colloquial Finnish highly recommended
>love to learn languages>need to output & speak with people>no one IRL to use it with>can't create meaningful discussions or connections in (big) groups online>can't find small groups or orgs near me that I can make frens>mfwThis absolutely sucks.
>>139982638It's a problem even for some Czechs, when I was little I had to go to linguistic sessions because I couldn't pronounce it properly.
>>139993561Different anon, same case, how do you pronounce it? I'm trying to make a "sh" noise while tapping an "r", but no video or instruction seems to work so far.
I think the Armenian alphabet looks cool and the language sounds awesome, almost like a mix between Greek and Persian. The country itself seems super interesting as well and I'd love to visit.Should I learn Armenian, lads?
Do the contractions "does he" -> "s'he" (/zi/), "did he" -> "d'he" (/di/), and "do/did we" -> "d'we" (/dwi/) actuall exist, or am I making myself hear things that aren't real? When I say all of these, they sound perfectly natural, but I can't find any references to them online, even in sources that list "do/did you" -> "d'you"
>>139968796>all those pretentious faggots learning germanMan almost makes me ashamed of having learned fluent german since i share interest with all these 4chan chuds
>>139994453Just take solice in the fact 99% of them wont ever be fluent like you
>>139994453Go back to bunkerchan
>>139991841Use italki and just simp for friends
>>139991342How long u been learning french? How often do you talk to francophones?
>google translate quarantine from latin to english>translate translation from english to latin>repeatWhat the fuck did they mean by this?
>>139995334>Now from the time when the Jews will make use of the plan of salvation,
>>139990878i think there is a bit of talent involved with that
Taking a phonetics class is pain when you've been using IPA for years.My TA today used pic related symbol to describe a sound I was sure was /a/, and she didn't understand when I asked if I was misunderstanding the sound or if she was using a non-standard phonetic alphabet. Other TA said they're the same phoneme but the chart the TA gave us describes them as different.I JUST WANT TO FUCKING KNOW IF THE ONLY DIFFENCE BETWEEN FALLE AND FAHLE IS THE VOWEL LENGTH OR IF THEY'RE DIFFERENT IN OTHER WAYS TOO
>>139995775for me \ɑː\ is just \a\ when accentuated it sounds a bit more like an \o\, it's in between and longer
>>139995775apparantly some analysis find it fit to distinguish a separate /a/ and /ɑ/ (but only one long /aː/). It seems that the /a/ would pattern with the lax vowels, while the /ɑ/ would pattern with the short tense vowels. That said, this is literally all that I can gather about it, because the only references I can find to this appear to be a Polish textbook or research journal, and I don't know any Polish.In short, go to your professor's office hours.
>>139995775By the way, since you're taking a phonetics class, do you know what the deal with /i̯/ and /u̯/ are, and if there's any phonetic difference between /j/ and /i̯/?
>>139990513où est la baguette>>139994531based
The symbol under the letter in /i̯/ and /u̯/ shows that the sound is the second part of diphthong. So /ai̯/ is a diphthong that starts as an /a/ and gradually turns into an /i/. /i̯/ can't represent an /i/ sound in itself, it instead represents a diphthong that gradually turns into something that sounds like /i/./j/ and /i̯/ are in principle the same sound, but as I mentioned /i̯/ specifically refers to when another vowel gradually turns into an /i/-like sound. /j/ on the other hand can be used outside of the context of diphthongs. /'haja/ can be read as the syllable /ha/ followed by the syllable /ja/, /'hai̯a/ can only be read as the syllable /hai̯/ followed by the syllable /a/.
>>139998259forgot to tag >>139997133
>>139998259Sorry, I should have been clearer; outside of the usual diphthongs, /i̯/ and /u̯/ sometimes appear before the main vowel, apparently as independent phonemes. In that context, there seems to be a contrast between /i̯/ and /j/; I've never found any sources that discuss it in detail, nor have I found any minimal pairs, but German and English Wiktionary consistently represent the distinction. For example, the difference between the two is seen to constitute a separate, non-standard pronunciation in Milliarde (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Milliarde) and German Wiktionary separates rhyming pages based on only this difference (e.g., Gallien and Medaillen are said to not rhyme because the former is /ˈgali̯ǝn/ and the latter is /meˈdaljen/.The fact that Wiktionary distinguishes the two so consistently makes me think that it's a real contrast, but the fact that it's so hard to find any mention of it (at least online) makes me question it. Also, I have no idea what the phonetic difference would actually be, because I've never found a phonetic study that investigated /i̯/.
I am on my way to learn the 100 most useful Chinese characters and I'm at my 15th. 5 more characters to learn today. I struggle writing the strokes properly for now but it'll work with time and practice.
>>139999091I recommend investing in a relatively cheap drawing/osu pad so that you can practice writing them in a computer. E.g. an Anki deck with "typed" answer cards and then you use handwritten input to enter the Chinese. That's how I study Kanji.
>>139968131On a side note, theoretically, you'll also need the past tense forms in order to form the correct German conjunctive 2 forms.For example. war -> wärehatte -> hättegab -> gäbeetc.However, in practice, even most Germans are too dumb or lazy to use the conjunctive correctly and just say "würde" for everything (many don't even make a difference between conjunctive 1 and 2).Good luck, bro!Also, on another sidenote: Perfekt is often used when speaking and Präteritum is more often used in writing. You'll probably pick up a lot of Präteritum forms by just reading.
>>139964787>>139962265mdr, la sxercoj ke amuzas komencantojn.Iru kacen, picxacxuloj.
>>139999091looking decent m8. some of them look a bit cramped; pay attention to relative stroke length and allow them to 'breathe' a bit more I'd say.>>139999234I have a stylus to write them on my phone but I much prefer my physical notebook, but I imagine a dedicated drawing pad might be a good alternative.>an Anki deck with "typed" answer cards and then you use handwritten input to enter the Chinese. That's how I study Kanji.does that mean EN -> JP/CN? I haven't tried that.
>>139971066>The moment I saw German 'sch's transliterated into a single letter in Cyrillic I fell in love with tailor-made scripts.Wait until you learn that Ч is Tsch in german. German would honestly be a lot more efficient if we adopted a few cyrillic letters.
>>139958687how do I learn to roll my "r"s?
>>139993771I'm really not sure that I could explain such a concept to a foreigner. Your way may be the most approximate one, maybe "ch" as in chalk but with "r" instead may be closer than "sh".
>>139971066>>140000239Has nothing to do with cyrillicLatin script is plenty capable of thisć or č
>>139999012https://de.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/Halbvokal> In dem Wort „Nation“ ([na't͡si̯oːn]) steht der Buchstabe „i“ nicht für einen Vokal in silbentragender Position, da der Laut [oː] diese Funktion innehat. Damit befindet sich das „i“ in der Position des Silbenrandes und ist einHalbvokal.DieserHalbvokalwird meist mit [i̯], manchmal aber auch mit [j] transkribiert, da seine Aussprache der despalatalenFrikativs[j] (wie in „jung“ = [jʊŋ]) entspricht.They're pronounced the same according to Wiktionary self. Afaik Gallien/Medaillen difference just has to do with whether the l is part of the last or the penultimate syllable.
>>139975869>>139976330>Гpaммaтикa cтaнoвитcя вaжнee пocлe тoгo, кaк y тeбя ecть cильныe ocнoвы. Ho ecли ты изyчишь гpaммaтикy paнo, вcё бyдeт лeгчe в бyдyщeм.Comparative adjectives sound more natural in a single word form.Compound sentence gets a comma between in parts (but not a second capital letter)."This"/"that" - we are introducing a new concept, so we go with "тoгo" here. Compare: "Cнaчaлa нyжны бaзoвыe знaния, пocлe этoгo мoжнo зaнимaтьcя гpaммaтикoй".I get for you meant by strong basics, but translation sounds unnatural. Not sure how to easily fix it. Regardless, if "ocнoвы" is plural, then so is the adjective."Узнaть" in the sense of learning is for becoming aware of singular facts. For example: "Я yзнaл, кaк eгo зoвyт". For continuously studying disciplines, it would be something like "зaнимaтьcя гpaммaтикoй", "изyчaть гpaммaтикy" and so on. "Изyчить гpaммaтикy" is fine if you want a perfect verb, though it is not really something anybody can say to have completely comprehended. "Бyдyщee" goes with "in", not "on".
>>140001400> comma between in parts*"between its parts", of course.
https://voca.ro/15ZzlIwhkiFvI'm trying to get better at french pronunciation but I still make mistakes like saying blanc with a hard c because my anglo mind can't stop me in time it's over
>>140000816just do it lel
>>140001528after a decade I still pronounce /z/ as /s/ whenever I speak at a faster pace than 10 WPM because my dano mind doesn't want to accept the sound
>>140001400Please learn russian before trying to correct somebody else's
When did the Latin languages move to using the verb "to have" to show past tense? Latin doesn't do that. "Avoir, avere, haber" etc.
>>140001689it's hard for me to hear the difference in some configurations too kek
>>140001528Among other things >franc is like blanc, you don't pronounce the 'c'>the 'ch' monarchique is pronounced sh, not kYou got a pretty good pronunciation but Jesus Christ anon slow the fuck down.
>>140002409I'm trying to get better at talking quickly because that's how things work irl, you can't speak like some A2 autist for the rest of your life good tips though
>>140001758>Latin doesn't do that.It does. Just not classical Latin. >episcopum invitatum habesIt developed in vulgar latin, but traces can be found in classical Latin.
>>140002490Yeah but you're being a little too fast there. It's alright if you're a bit slow.
>>140001357Thanks for finding that. I'm not sure if the example sentence for a word is authoritative enough, but until I see evidence otherwise I guess just pronouncing syllable structure difference is enough in practice. I was kind of hoping German had phonetically distinguishable semivowels and semiconsonants like Spanish.My immediate question upon reading that is if the same is true for dialects where /j/ is pronounced as a fricative [ʝ]; it seems the two could either become more distinct, or the "semivowel" could end up getting pronounced as a fricative.
I had no idea until recently that Indonesian is an actual language and that it even uses the latin alphabet. Just looking at it's grammar and orthography as well as a rather large number of european and arabic loanwords it seems like it would be a rather simple language to learn. Huh?
>>140003049Bahasa Indonesia is a language you can choose to learn in school here, I don't think any other country has it as part of the curriculum (besides Indonesia)
>>139961878technicly its correct,but this is never useddie huren means those rents, dont think even in english people say those rentsrent is pretty much only used singuler in the rent, de huur
>>140003049it has a reputation for being simple as far as non-Indo-European languages go, but I don't know if we currently have any learners around>>140003147cool. any other Asian languages?
Any anon learning chinese?Of course learning chinese alone it's a mess, what if you are completely wrong, and keep going at it, atleast with Western languages you are pretty sure to find someone and correct you. But Mandarin?The wiki says to join this QQ thing, but as soon as i start it is in chinese, obviously, but I haven't started the part where you learn hanzi, so no clue what moon runes mean.Any help?BTW how do you say Hermaphrodite in chinese? Don't say futanari, or the pinyin of Hermaphrodite, since this word rather than scientific, is cultural(Hermaphrodite is Greek and refers to the legend of Hermes, Futanari is Japanese and refers to male actors portraying female characters), there must be a word to indicate "double" or "third gender", and don't say dicklady it has nothing to do with sex, not even trannies.
>>140003330nope everything else is normal
>>140003641Thanks a lot, that's exactly what I was looking for, as I see is composed of:MaleFemaleLikeBody.But, do you have any historical context about the word? How it came to be? How was first used?For exemple:Hermaphrodite son of Hermes and Apgrodite that fused with a nymph, so it's simple Hermes + Aphrodite. Futanari is self-explanatory, Futa(two) + naru(to be) to be of two, this has an historical context, cause some males did female characters.But what about this word? Wikipedia chinese doesn't say much...
how do i roll my "r"s?
>>140004336This literally says "female male same body" are you even trying to research mate
>>139975869Узнaть means either recognise or learn, but the latter in a sense akin to "I've learnt that my wife is cheating on me"Study = изyчaть and it's derivatives Also, it's better to say вaжнee, лeгчe here
>>139994604Many years. I use French websites and discord sometimes, but I write more than I speak or listen.
>>140004989Stick something deep into the back of your throat and make a gagging noise
>>139999918I'll try to take note of that, thank you, anons. I prefer writing traditionally, >>139999234, even if i have a tablet, because I'd also like to do the action of actually doing the strokes without having a chance to ctrl z
>>140006750Yeah, kinda crazy that we use 7 letters for Щ. But on the other hand there aren't really any german words that use this sound.
>>140007128It's just a bit funny>>139965072Euphonic -t-same with l'onQu'on sounds like con, which is a no-no word, so it would be 'proper' to say que l'on
>>140003049Yeah it's a really based language>>140003330We have me, I've been doing it for a while and it's a really based language
Is it true that vosotros is not used in south america but they use ustedes?
>>140003363>>140004336We use 雌雄同体 too, but 両性具有 or ふたなり(二形) is more common.>Futa(two) + naru(to be)"nari" is more like 'shape', 'form' or 'appearance', like in 身なり
>>140009054Yes, in Spain ustedes is the polite pronoun but in Latin America ustedes is used for both polite and familiar situations.
>>140009588I understand thanks !
How much time does it take to learn Russian to a rather fluent state (not completely fluent), enough to convey complicated ideas and to understand russian TV
>>140010690'bout a year or a little over if you put daily effort into it
how the fuck do you learn word order? whenever i try to write norwegian people always comment at how i write like a english speaker.
>>140010769I think that this a bit of an underestimation
>>140011765I mean it obv depends on the amount of time you give it, but you're still going to make a huge stride & at least be conversationally fluent
>>140011672>how the fuck do you learn word order?Reading? Listening?>whenever i try to write norwegian people always comment at how i write like a english speaker.Well, you're most likely fucking up the V2 (verb second) word order that Norwegian has. In fact, I've seen you do this and told you about it before, I'm sure... Anyhow, English doesn't have this.V2 word order means the finite verb appears in the second position in a clause. A great example could be a clause introduced by an adverbial:>tomorrow I will go to town>i morgen skal jeg gå til byenHere, in the Norwegian example, you can see that the finite verb appears in the second position: adverbial + finite verb + subject + infinite verb + object.In the English example, you can see that the subject comes before the verb: adverbial + subject + finite verb + infinite verb + object.
>>140010690About 4 years
in spanish you have to use -a with a movement such as "voy a la piscina" however I noticed it was used in a sentence with the verb "to hear (oir)" Would it be used with verbs such as -to look, to touch as well?
>>140013572"a" is used before animate direct objects. I hear a man. Oigo a un hombre.I hear a song. = Oigo un canto.
>>140013572>>140013807Wait, strike that; you only used it before direct objects that are animate AND definite, so it would be this:I hear the woman. = Oigo a la mujer.I hear the song. = Oigo el canto.
>>140013807>>140013882I see thanks! I shall read basic texts to get used to it
I don't even plan on traveling to Norway, but I'm learning Norwegian because it's easy.
Which sounds more natural:>Nå må jeg visst hjemor>Jeg må visst gå hjem nå
>learning multiple languages at once ishygddti know it can get exciting, seeing all the different languages you can learn, but when you try to learn multiple at once, you're just learning all of them at a slower pace. It's better to focus your efforts on one until you've got a certain level of proficiency to where you can passive input while you move on to formally studying the next.
how the fuck do i learn more vocab i just cant seem to learn more
>>139958687>nuttig>nützlichWould work in English as an allegory well. Pls stop making this useless thread.
>>140015900what is your target language?
>>140015934RUSSIANi have the basic vocab down but everytime i see a new word i translate it think ok cool nice and then i wont see the word ever again
>>140013004thanks again sweede bro but i believe i have finally found the source of my eternal confusion.the v2 applies for for the MAIN clause, but things get switched a bit with the SUBORDINATE clause. i didnt know the difference. an example. Du kan ringe til Pamelas kontor (main). Jeffs telefon svarer ikke (subordinate). if i was to combine these it would become..Du kan ringe til Pamelas kontor hvis Jeffs ikke svarer telefon. orhvis jeffs svarer ikke telefon, kan du ringe pamelas kontorhave i got these right?
>>140016179so if i got it right, the main clause structure is like you said adverb + subject + finite verb + infinite verb + object.but with the subordinate clause it goes subordinate conjunction + subject + adverb + verb....
>>140016019Add it to your Anki deck
What's the point in learning a language when we're all gonna die anyway?
>>140016933you ok bud?
>wanna learn another language>can barely speak my native oneI blame slang
>>140017672>learning my TL has taught me words in my native tongue that I didn't even know about j'aime le français
>>140017783>I-I'm totally gonna live foreverdeathist cope rather than embracing delusion you should focus on extending the short time you're given as much as possible
>>140018149Eternal return is a scientific theory, not a religion muttardhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eternal_return
>>140017783i've tried worked in your cunt for a year and traveleld around for 1 more. I would've preffered killing myself tha staying. such a grim place. feels for you.well to answer your question, learn another lang to live in another cunt maybe? if your somewhat educated its always an option.
>>140018225well you said, its a theory not a fact. all you can know is this life anon. make the most of it, or end it, its your choice.
>>140018225>calls it a scientific theory >links to an article explaining that it's based on ancient religious rites and revitalized as a modern philosophyget your story straight son
>>140018412Evolution is also a theory, and I don't even have choices ;( everything in my life is pre-determined, I'm literally set to do what the universe decided how ever long ago.
has anyone got a good italian anki deck
>>140018541>I'm literally set to do what the universe decided how ever long agoBe a fucking moron it seems
>>140018506Read the eternal return section of the friedrich Nietsche page on wikipedia.
>>140018623Well.. yes? if I was pre-determined to a moron, so I was, I was pre-determined to send this message to you, to be born in England, who I'll marry, what I'll eat is all pre-determined.
>>140018541while i agree free will doesn't exsist, fatalism is terribly misguided and can lead you to some dark places (i know)im trying to feel sorry for you but if your gonna be such a beta cuck and not take life by the balls then you dont deserve anything better
Check my determined doubles
>>140018891Nigga how you supposed to grab life when by the balls if you don't even control your own life?
>>140018891>fatalism is terribly misguided and can lead you to some dark places (i know)Can your experiences pls anon?
>>140019129did i stay in australia, drinking myself into oblivion in a job i despised? or did i fucken make the change that needed to happen?yes you are right, I am in control of so little. but sometimes you need to leave your little box and put yourself out there so life can work its magic. or just kill yourself now, i cant imagine the suffering your exsistence brings to others around you with that attitude
>>140019636Are you a hard determinist? Because in determinism you aren't even in control of so little, you are in control of literally nothing, it's like ur on a rollercoaster, you can't change where it goes.
New ChallengeA1>I want to eat something... but what?>I like salad, but I don't have any lettuce.>I'm going to go to the restaurant.A2>Small shops are gradually disappearing.>It’s a lot easier, faster, and, in general, less expensive to do one’s shopping at a supermarket.>The only exception, to some extent, seems to be bakeries.B1>It’s five in the afternoon and the sun is still shining above Beverly Hills’s palm trees>They signal their colleagues in surrounding offices to meet them in the hallway.>She’s the one who had the great idea of hiring Maria, the youngest lawyer since the creation of this firm.B2>The night I arrived, there were, I kid you not, about twenty sitting in a circle on the platform, warming their paws in a moonbeam.>Another who was very surprised to see me was the second floor lodger, a gloomy, thoughtful old owl, who has lived in the mill for more than twenty years.>In the time it took to crack open a window, frrt! the encampment broke up, and all these little white behinds with tails in the air were bolting into the thicket.
>>140020727Save it for next thread.
New Fred: >>140020973
>>140019129>>140019437>>140020130kek am i talking to 1 or 2 brtanonsafter a 2 1/2 year hitch hiking trip through Europe, and learning how little i was in control of anything I returned to Australia with fresh perspective. I was gonna let life take control of it all, no decision by me.fast forward a few years. alot of shit happened in between, but in the end I wound up homeless for a few months, without any money wandering helplessly waiting for something, anything to happen. and i had known for years, but my clarity of thought wasn't there (blame weed and booz) that i needed to get back to Europe. and when that realization came (albeit much later than was required), i went back to work (trade educated), and killed myself with 60 hours weeks for a year to get some savings to start again over here. So lessons learnt. yes you are not in control of the external. but sometimes life is giving you a signs on which path you should be taking. there are many obstructions to this (ego, drugs) that stop you from seeing, and then acting on these signs (greed, fear etc). but ultimately, you need find out what path you need to be on (that I believe is determined, from your life experiences up to that point), and then keep that clarity of mind to stay on that path. whats good for you today might not be good for you tomorrow and all that. If I simply kept that fatalist mindset, i probably would've been a junky by now trying to numb the pain.soz for telling you to kill yourself, i was triggered by the defeatist mindset.thanks for reading my blog
>>140016179>the v2 applies for for the MAIN clause, but things get switched a bit with the SUBORDINATE clause.No, V2 applies to both, which is why a typical Norwegian subclause is so drastically different from an English one.>Jeffs telefon svarer ikke (subordinate)This is a main clause, and it also sounds weird... why would the phone itself not pick up?>have i got these right?Don't think so.I would attempt the following:>Du kan ringe (til) Pamelas kontor hvis ikke Jeff svarer i telefon.>Hvis ikke Jeff svarer (i telefon) kan du ringe (til) Pamelas kontor.
Someone make a new one, I'm too busy rn
>>140021109>soz for telling you to kill yourself, i was triggered by the defeatist mindset.Is ok fren, you were determined to do that.So I had a bit of trouble understanding, so do you think that there are certain points where we aren't completely determined and can choose what to do? Or you're still a fatalist but choose not to necessarily believe in it.
>>140021673lifes throwing you all sorts of curve balls anon, you just need to know which the best one to catch is. so yes that does make me a determinst? i dunno i dont care. mindfulness meditation, clean eating and absitence from drugs are what i recomend to be able to see the right ball.I dont read anthing on this subject because most of it can be taken out of context easy, which i see academics do often who havent exerpeicned life. if you wanna learn about life, you need to life live, simple as that.