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Welcome to /fglt/ - Friendly GNU/Linux Thread.

Users of all levels are welcome to ask questions about GNU/Linux and share their experiences.
Before asking for help, please check our list of resources and FAQ or take a moment to do a web search.

*** Please be civil, notice the "Friendly" in every Friendly GNU/Linux Thread - no racism, misogyny, homophobia, transphobia, anti-semitism or islamophobia! ***

If you would like to try out GNU/Linux, you can do one of the following:
>install a GNU/Linux distribution of your choice in a virtual machine
>boot into a GNU/Linux distribution from a live image without installing anything
>dual boot the GNU/Linux distribution of your choice along with Windows or macOS
If you'd like to _use_ GNU/Linux, go balls deep and replace everything with GNU/Linux.

Resources:
$ man <command>
$ info <command>
$ <command> -h/--help
$ help <builtin>
Don't know what to look for?
$ apropos <something>
Check the Wikis (most stuff applies to all distros):
https://wiki.archlinux.org
https://wiki.gentoo.org
/g/'s Wiki on GNU/Linux:
https://wiki.installgentoo.com/index.php/Category:GNU/Linux
/fglt/'s website and copypasta collection:
http://fglt.nl && https://p.teknik.io/wJ9Zy

FAQ:
>What distro should I choose?
https://wiki.installgentoo.com/index.php/Babbies_First_Linux
>What are some cool programs?
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/list_of_applications
https://directory.fsf.org/wiki/Main_Page
>What are some cool terminal commands?
http://www.commandlinefu.com
http://cheat.sh
>Where can I learn the command line?
http://mywiki.wooledge.org/BashGuide
http://wiki.bash-hackers.org/
http://www.grymoire.com/Unix
http://overthewire.org/wargames/bandit
>Where can I learn more about Free Software?
https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/philosophy.html
http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/maine-speech.html
http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/dcm.html
>>
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>>78814661
how do I exclude lines with a keyword in grep? Here I've got this thing named timeshift. It backs up my system but it's a nightmare to search anything because of what you see in pic related. If I'm not interested in viewing results with, for instance, the keyword timeshift in them, how do I pipe into grep (or whatever command) so I don't see them?
>>
>>78814692
use grep -v friend.
In this case,
locate SEARCH_ARGUMENT | grep -v TERM_TO_EXCLUDE
>>
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What are some possible reasons as to why LVM would fail to create a volume group during install (arch)? I have an EFI partition, one LVM partition on the EFI disk and a separate disk also containing an LVM partition. I am able to run pvcreate with no issue.
>>
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For the anon wanted to use Arch but had trouble installing, try my script out. Already tested on a VM, if anyone wants to try it on metal I'd appreciate feedback.
gofile(dot)io/d/LbQWKP
I call it NormieOS
>>
Is there an in-depth yet friendly to the somewhat casual user guide to Mandatory Access Control available?

I'm reasonably sure there's no gooey or simplified abstracted interface for working with the likes of apparmor, but I'd like to learn.
I've read the arch wiki article, but feel somewhat lost in it; I want a more hands held tutorial.
>>
>>78814746
It's possible it's a hardware fault. You may test this by formatting the drive and partitioning it to something else. Otherwise, I'm a Debian master so I can't say anything useful =(

>>78814768
Will it work on my Lenovo Tablet with an unlocked bootloader?
>>
ncdu is a nice program
>>
>>78814817
that's terminal work and not GUI work, hate to break it to you
>>
>>78814822
I don't know. It was written for a UEFI system
>>
>>78814863
I'm perfectly fine with "terminal work" as you call it, I'd just like approachable documentation.

Rather I'm wondering if there's an ufw to iptables-esque relationship to working with apparmor. I'm not that baby where I need gooey buttons.
And even writing the configs myself isn't what I'd count as any sort of dealbreaker, as long as I have documentation that doesn't make exceedingly optimistic estimates regarding my level of familiarity and education.
>>
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>rebooting after the installation of any system program
that sounds annoying
>>
>turn off wifi
>turn on wifi
>computer bricks
t-thanks intel
>>
>>78815138
Yeah why does Ubuntu do this? No other distro requires you to restart after every update
>>
>>78815504
Ubuntu only requires a reboot on kernel updates afaik
>>
>>78815533
I run Ubuntu with Plasma on my old laptop. It has asked me to reboot after every set of updates so far.
>>
>>78815551
Kernel updates are kinda frequent.
I always reboot on every update anyway just to make sure things are fresh.
>>
Is there any babby tier scripts to set up i3 on Arch with default keybinds, status bar, theme etc.? I'm too busy to customize every bit myself and just want something neat off the shelf.
>>
>>78815727
Why bother with i3 at all then?
>>
>>78815727
just use the default config and basic i3bar with i3status

>>78815769
off the shelf i3 is very usable, i've barely customized mine save for a handful of shortcuts and adding temperature and cpu usage to the bar in 2 years of usage
>>
How do I get my gpu fan to run at zero rpm with the propietary nvidia driver? On windows it automatically runs at zero rpm
>>
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>>78814746
What is the point in using LVM? The cool kids laugh at me when I tell my root filesystem is a bare EXT4 partition.
>>
>windows registry universally considered a clusterfuck
>gnome devs implement exact same shit for their DE config and it is fucking shit
What was wrong with dotfiles again?
>>
>>78816476
I honestly don't know what they're thinking. My best guess is it's a speed/performance thing? Which may also be why shitstaind uses binary logs instead of plaintext logs?

But from what I understand the kernel keeps files in its memory that are being frequently accessed anyway, so even plaintext configs and log files should be almost just as fast as these other solutions. I might be wrong about that, but that's the current impression I have, so I don't understand why they're trying to fix something that isn't broken.
>>
>>78816645
>I honestly don't know what they're thinking. My best guess is it's a speed/performance thing?
Settings synchronization. Shared settings can be applied on the fly without restarting applications.
>>
>>78816832
Are you sure about that? You make it sound like it's something you get for free, but I don't see how that's possible.
Wouldn't the application developer would have to explicitly tell their program to monitor and react to those settings changes? How is that any different from a developer telling their program to monitor the config file for changes and react to it?
There's many programs that instantly update the moment I save a config file.
>>
>>78815727
https://regolith-linux.org/
>>
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>>78814822
>You may test this by formatting the drive and partitioning it to something else.
I did, works perfectly well as anything else. Maybe LVM requires an update?
>>
is it possible to move the status bar in dwm to the bottom? seeing it at the top of the screen irritates me
>>
>>78817328
yes
>>
What's a good ShareX and Ditto alternative on Linux? I use CopyQ as my clipboard manager and it's good enough but I wasn't able to find a screenshot program that's as good as ShareX still. I currently use Shutter but Shutter is laggy and sometimes it doesn't even work sooo pls help
>>
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What is Plasma/Wayland and what does it do?
>>
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any tips about qemu anons?

im a linux brainlet so your help is very appreciated, I want to become a wizard

I succesfully installed templeOS using it and now I am aware of virt-install, virt-viewer, virsh start, virt destroy
>>
>>78818106
oh, and obviously virsh list --all
>>
>>78818021
Plasma is the best GNU desktop environment.
Wayland is a display server in development that is growing into a viable alternative for X.org more and more.
>>
>>78817938
>What's a good ShareX and Ditto alternative on Linux?
Closest to Sharex is Flameshot, not close to Sharex in functionality, but it's not that bad and seems to be in active development. For clipboard I don't know what you'd need, but Klipper works fine.
>>
>>78814661
where's the link to the previous thread, awkward dingus?
Previous thread: >>78785948
>>
why is fedora never recommended as a good distro for gaming? wouldnt it be pretty good considering its very new kernel?
>>
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>>78818328
>the best GNU desktop environment.
that would be GNUstep.
>>
>>78810133
checked & saved
>>
>>78818480
Based
>>
>>78818473
Mainly because they don't offer non-free software in their repos (like Steam) and because at best devs check if everything works on Ubuntu.
>>
>>78818480
Literally what?
>>
>>78818106
>im a linux brainlet
then perhaps use VirtualBox instead
>>
>>78818589
You known NextSTEP, right. Well, GNU made an open source clone in the 90s...
>>
>>78818021
some software for milksops
>>
>>78811076
freebsd (^:
>>
>>78818480
>>78818686
Okay cool. Post your based nineties desktop then
>>
So... I want a Linux distro with a good privacy. I already tried Arch and Debian and it was a failure to install. I liked Linux Mint and Ubuntu a bit, but it came to my knowledge that those distros aren't very safe. So, what you guys suggest me? ty
>>
Who Debian Unstable gang here?
>>
>>78818973
What went wrong with arch and Debian?
>>
>>78818973
TAILS running off a flash drive. If you aren't willing to go to those lengths, common distributions like Mint or base Ubuntu should be sufficient for your purposes.
>>
>>78819091
with arch, I think the problem is my QI. Lol...
With Debian the problem was that there were some "firmware" that were missing. So I could not get out of the blackscreen with "GNOME ready" or something like that. I'm very noob, i think i will stay on W10. ;_;
>>
>>78819126
Try a Debian image that includes non-free software then
>>
>>78819117
>>78819165
thank you all!
>>
>>78819126
It wants your gfx card drivers, don't know why they call that "firmware". I guess cause it was made by spastics.
>>
So what is the point of putting linux on a thinkpad W520 if the gpu that comes with it is basically useless with having to deal with bumblebee/no vulkan support? Can't even use an external monitor with it currently.
>inb4 install gentoo
>>
>>78819493
>what is the point
https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.en.html
>>
>>78814661
how to make any version of gnome look like ubuntu?
for exemple having the same ubuntu gnome theme on opensuse

is this possible at all? i bet it is but is it easy to do?
>>
>>78802804
what does this mean? separate how?
>>
Has anyone tried Alpine Linux? How does it compare to something like Arch?
>>
>>78820671
Software availability is somewhat limited, even if you enable the community repos and working in a musl exclusive environment feels pretty weird at first. Despite that and the minimalistic approach, I'd still say it's actually more accessible than Arch. Or at least they try to be. Some of the guides on their wiki definitely need an overhaul (e.g. the GNOME setup), but the initial setup scripts are very straight forward and a graphical environment is also quickly installed.
>>
I have some questions about Wayland:
>it seems to me it doesnt use drivers (e.g., amd, noveau) and instead is just rendered by the CPU, is this accurate?
>for gaming or general purposes, is wayland more intensive and thus less efficient? or is my view of wayland totally wrong?
>>
>>78820521
install unity and try
>>
I am formatting a drive to be a samba share, does it mater what file system I use? Ext4 or NTFS?
>>
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Is Ungoogled Chromium still a /g/-approved GNU/Linux browser?
>>
>GTK theme disables the "gtk-primary-button-warps-slider" setting
>TOR browser also ships a custom GTK3 settings file just disable this setting
Literally why? Why the fuck would disabling this be desired behavior? Why would a theme - something that should only be touching my widget colors - also disable behavioral settings? Does TOR consider this to be a privacy problem? What the hell?
>>
>>78821292
Either one could work in theory, but ext4 would be a lot less impractical. People come up with some mystical shit about what NTFS can and can't do. ntfs-3g is a FUSE driver, so performance is going to blow, and while POSIX ACLs and NTFS permissions are logically equivalent, ntfs-3g's user mapping isn't set up to handle new users being added without remounting the filesystem.
>>
>>78821746
It never was. They don't even have enough people to keep up with the ungoogling part, let alone security updates. Anything Chr*mium is pozzed to the gills.
>>
>>78821833
it's shipped with the rest, forking is a huge endevour and there's no option on the main forks to remove it.
everyone sucks
>>
>>78821833
i dont think they're targeting that setting specifically
themes are a privacy problem because they can change things like the scrollbar width that can be detected by websites
it also doesn't follow your font rendering settings because websites can make screenshots of text for fingerprinting using <canvas>
if you want to stand out then use the tor daemon directly without the browser and plug your normal browser into that
>>
what is the retard-proof way to install drivers on arch? can you just install "xorg-drivers" and be done with it?
>>
>>78821043
You have to be 18 or older to post here.
>>
>>78821943
If a site can run enough JavaScript to find out your scrollbar width, they can gather more than enough information to uniquely identify you pretty much no matter what browser you're using.
>>
>>78821836
Thanks anon.
>>
>>78819493
People who encourage putting Linux on Thinkpads typically avoid the Nvidia ones. AMD or Intel single GPU is the way to go for Linux laptops.
>>
does cuda work on 5.9.9 now? I ran torch.cuda.is_available(), since I read a that people used that to check; and it returned true. Not sure if it's because of the new kernel or because I switched to the beta versions of all my gpu drivers
>>
How does mounting discs work in Debian? How come one of my drives is mounted at /media/username/drivename and my other one is /mnt/542EEC65CEEC1F2?

Which is correct?
>>
>>78822222
mnt = based
media = cringe
>>
>>78822222
Checked. Check /etc/fstab for the second one because that first one is the pattern you'd see if your DE is doing it.
>>
>>78822235
>>78822239
Ok so I need to learn what fstab is?
>>
>>78814661
Old thread: >>78785948
>>
>>78822268
It's a filename you retard. /etc/fstab Open it in your editor.
>>
Why are most of the Arch developers German? Is Arch a German distro?
>>
>>78822316
sad how far german engineering has fallen
>>
I'm choosing between GPT and MBR. Is there a performance loss with MBR? Found a few posts claiming that GPT is faster. Or is that bullshit and it's only about how many partitions you can create?
My thinkpad supports both BIOS and UEFI.
>>
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>>78822330
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Fstab
>>
>>78822344
UEFI+GPT is generally the way to go because the boot process is saner.
>>
Is the OS that Purism uses in their laptops good to run on other hardware? Heard it's Debian based and focused on security and privacy. PureOS or something
>>
>>78822357
Thanks
>>
What's a good simple powerpoint viewer for Ubuntu?
>>
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does the xfce mouse have an official name? little guy deserves one for being one of the best mascots
>>
>>78822818
Libreoffice.
>>
>>78822387
it's pretty much just a skin on Debian testing, like how Pop OS is on Ubuntu. You can use it if you want but I don't really see the point desu

>>78822344
the main case where BIOS/MBR booting still makes sense in 2020 is if you want mirrored boot drives. You can install GRUB on both, use the software RAID of your choice (mdadm, ZFS, btrfs...) and configure it to still start even if a disk is missing. Bam, your system will continue working, or boot up, even in the face of a dead drive. This is a lot harder on UEFI because UEFI mandates that the EFI system partition be FAT32, which requires some alarming hacks to mirror. You're probably not in this situation on a laptop, though.

>>78821943
I really wish they would have gone with a model of trying to make sure that your fingerprint changes and therefore isn't persistent, instead of a model of trying to keep everyone's fingerprint exactly the same.
>>
>>78822946
>This is a lot harder on UEFI because UEFI mandates that the EFI system partition be FAT32
That's why they make those stubby little USB drives to stick in the front panel USB port on a server that won't stop a rack door from closing. OS and boot from USB, everything gets cached into RAM, and then the big disks for the storage pool.
>>
>>78819438
it doesn't, you need both the driver and firmware to use most gpus
>>
i feel like ive gone to far linux. I forgot how to even use windows... i went to a friend and we played some niddhog and duck game and i legit couldnt close the game because im so used to having a bind to kill the current window....
>>
>>78823036
Linux is the kernel.
>>
Heya, I just installed Linux Mint on my new PC build and it won't recognize my ethernet connection. Any ideas?
>>
>>78823092
shut up >:(
>>
>>78814768
Does it automatically install drivers, enable hibernation, enable early KMS and configure the /etc/hosts file?
>>
>>78823100
See if OS is able to detect your network adapter.
>>
>>78822316
The creator, Judd Vinet, is Canadian, a lot of contributors are German though, I don't know why
>>
>>78815727
>i3
Just use dwm, it's so much better

https://dwm.suckless.org/
>>
>>78823148
AFAIK Germany has a fairly high amount of Linux users per capita, and also a fairly large population.
>>
>>78823144
Where would I check that? My bios does at least.
>>
>>78823263
Use ip command.
>>
>>78823312
Oh okay, what's that?
>>
>>78823342
man ip
>>
>>78823342
Run ip link and see if your network interface is listed. If not try lspci.
>>
please explain to an actual retard how open source operating system is more secure when anyone can look at the source code and use it to create malware as they please? as i said i don't understand this stuff so don't be hostile please
>>
>>78823458
Security through obscurity is basically a lie. The IoT stuff constantly getting pwned is because they DON'T use open source applications and deliberately don't ship kernel patches.
>>
>>78823458
Because that means you've got tons of people constantly reviewing code.
>>
>>78823458
for any popular foss application, there are more people who want it to be secure than there are people looking to exploit it
while having access to source code does make it easier to find things to exploit, it also in turn means more people are able to find and fix said things as well
>>
>>78823473
>>78823478
>>78823493
ok thanks for the quick and detailed replies anons!
>>
>>78823387
What about would I see if it were listed?
>>
How can I suppress the output of one application while it's running without suppressing all terminal output? Basically I'm trying to run mpv from a terminal and hide all of mpv's output without suppressing the terminal output so I can continue using that terminal (ie &>/dev/null doesn't work).

Also, why is it when I make a string in bash like
MPV_ARGS="--loop-file=inf --stream-buffer-size=2m"

and pass that to mpv
mpv $MPV_ARGS


it fails, but if I break it up into two variables and do
mpv $MPV_ARG1 $MPV_ARG2

it works as intended?
>>
>>78823627
I fixed the first thing, I'm just stupid. Had to put & after the /dev/null redirection
>>
>>78818466
i also oughtn't have copied the "no transphobia islamophobia etc" but i'm lazy as fuck
>>
repology shows slackbuilds has 700 maintainers
placing them behind nix and above void and gentoo

the fuck? are people still using slack in 2020?
>>
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Just got Hyperbola installed on my librebooted ThinkPad X200. I was surprised by how straightforward getting things set up were, I usually just stick with Fedora because It Just Works. Arch and Gentoo wikis are helpful.

Don't plan on doing any work on this machine, just want to have a meme machine to tinker with things I'd like to try.
>>
>>78823900
I suspect its just that the kind of person who would run Slackware isn't the kind of person who goes around talking about what distro they use, so they fly under the radar.
>>
>>78824077
yep, that makes sense
>>
>>78814661
Does anyone use the PinePhone as a daily driver yet?
I do, and it's a lonely world out here.
>>
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>>78814661
Can I pass through my Intel iGPU to a QEMU VM if it's the only graphics option in my system? I know I wouldn't be able to use the host OS while the guest is running but will it kill the X server and KDE when the iGPU is passed through? I want to be able to just power off the VM and get back to my desktop. Thanks.
>>
>>78824650
Can you cool it with the cringe
>>
I am low IQ, can anyone point me in the right direction to set up a samba share for a windows 10 pc.
>>
How do I change a background image for grub in fedora 32. I've tried grub-customizer. Commented out grub_terminal_output="console", tried every image type and resolution I can find and yet the background image is always a blank screen. Reconfiguring the cfg file shows that it recognizes the image it just won't display it.
>>
>>78824573
Get a serial terminal, log in from there, use monitor/keyboard/mouse with VM.
>>
>>78825092
The default Samba configuration file is well commented enough that you should be able to figure it out from there.
>>
>>78824650
kill yourself youtubetween
>>
Good morning fglt!
Happy day of computing ahead
>>
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>Good morning fglt!
>Happy day of computing ahead
>>
>>78825433
me on the right
nyan
>>
>>78825220
Thanks I have it all setup and working. What is the best way to see how much hdd space is left on the sever?
>>
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been patching a customized iosevka font since yesterday with different options but the glyphs from U+E201 - U+E3E3 always turn out to be smaller than the rest like in pic related
any help on this would be appreciated
>>
>>78825417
Thanks, you too
>>
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Can you use ffmpeg to record a small clip from a movie and how?
>>
I have installed Pop os. Shit. I don't think something is wrong with it, but damn Gnome sucks. So called gaming on linux is hard, but I had no issues getting games running but spent 2 hours trying to configure gnome to do shit I want. Still not happy. Now it looks like android and windows had a retarded baby
>>
>>78825689
yes if you got the minutes
>>
>>78825689
>record
>from a movie
you mean cut out a section of the movie?
>ffmpeg -i <movie-file> -c copy -ss 11:11 -to 22:22 <output-filename>
>>
>>78825710
Install KDE. Uninstall Gnome. Problem solved.
Unironically. My first experience with linux was installing Ubuntu on my old laptop because that was pretty much the only distro I had ever heard of. Then after I learned about different DEs, I quickly figured out that Gnome was the one that suited me the least.
>>78825417
Thanks, you too!
>>
>install ubuntu on work laptop
>no battery no HDD ultralight
>weeks of smooth uptime
>unplug it for one night
>BIOS reset
>no bootable media found
>boot on USB
>can access all files

Do I have to chroot into my system everytime now? I don't understand what broke.
>>
>>78825689
you can either cut up the source file with ffmpeg or you can capture your screen
both operations can be done with a one line command you can find in under 30s with your favourite search engine
>>
>>78826093
I think I'll go with cinnamon. KDE is third option
>>
>>78826099
Maybe it lost the UEFI boot entries.
efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sda -p 1 -L Ubuntu -l \\EFI\ubuntu\grub\grubx64.efi

Correct the -d -p and -l parameters to match whatever you got. -p is for the partition number for EFI system partition.
>>
>>78826099
Turn off secure boot and legacy mode in BIOS. See whether it detects a medium now.

If not, is it an UEFI or BIOS system? If UEFI, check whether you still have an EFI boot partition on your disk and make one. Or reinstall grub and configure it. Guides to both those things can be found online, on the Arch wiki for example.

>>78826144
Ok good
>>
>>78826167
>>78826182
Updated grub and turned off secure boot, works ok now. Thanks lads. I've been dabbling in various distros for the past decade but this month is the first time I ditch windows entirely. Feels pretty gud.
>>
>>78826272
Glad it worked. Good luck on your journey!
>>
Has anyone here used Pipewire as a Pulseaudio replacement? What is it like?
>>
>>78821883
Then what is the next best thing?
>>
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Why isn't it more popular?
>>
>>78826780
too hard to install codecs
>>
I was planning on using Linux Mint on my ThinkPad T495, but The latest version of Mint uses Linux kernel 5.4, and my CPU (Ryzen 5 PRO 3500U) only became supported in kernel version 5.7. What are good alternatives to Linux Mint that use kernel 5.7 or higher? I am not very experienced with Linux, only some experience with Mint, TAILS and Ubuntu.
>>
>>78826780
Why use openSuse over a more popular distro?
>>
Is there a set of preconfigured settings package for jack? Cause holy shit why is this so fucking difficult to just get audio working?
Pulse has such high latency
>>
>>78826744
It's good, but it's not a great ALSA replacement yet.
>>
>>78826832
obs, tumbleweed, yast
>>
I remember seeing some stuff about the simplest possible linux system a while ago, using busybox. I want to experiment in OS-development and I think starting with such a simple system as a base would be very nice.
Does anyone have a link or something to a base system like this?
>>
>>78827576
>I want to experiment in OS-development and I think starting with such a simple system as a base would be very nice.
read LFS
>>
GuhNoo + Latinx
>>
>>78827684
I don't really need that level of control. I just want a minimal, clean slate to build upon.
>>
Literally never had a problem till now, how do i get this shit to work? I changed it to /usr/include/boost with an export but it still bitches

Using 'BOOST_ROOT' from environment with value: '/usr/lib/boost:/usr/include/boost:'
Run-time dependency Boost found: NO

../src/meson.build:100:0: ERROR: Paths in BOOST_ROOT must be absolute
>>
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Lads, given the fact the first freezing state for Debian bullseye starts in January, could I jump to testing/bullseye instead of waiting 5-6 months to become officially the new official stable?
>>
>>78827732
If you want to know how GNU/Linux distros are put together, read LFS.
Otherwise, install whatever.
>>
>>78827880
Alright then, I'll check it out.
>>
>>78827576
maybe you want this https://github.com/glaucuslinux/glaucus

you don't need that level of autism tho, unless you don't care about your machine being usable for something
>>
>>78828618
>unless you don't care about your machine being usable for something
not at all, just want to make a fun os to run in qemu or something
>>
I have one of those 2 in 1 pcs. While i managed to calibrate the touchscreen using https://github.com/reinderien/xcalibrate it fails to work with rotation, as xrandr -o only rotates the display without rotating the digitizer causing its axis to misalign
any way to simply rotate the touchscreen?
>>
>>78826780
Because it doesn't give you internet reputation.
>>
>>78826753
Firefox or Tor Browser.
>>
>>78827761
If you don't care about having security updates on time, sure.
>>
>>78825583
df -h
>>
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>>78814661
Any way to backup installed packages before version upgrade in Centos/RHEL? Last time yum froze on me and I ended up with over 200 of conflicts. I ended up with reinstall.
>>
>>78829951
if you're using btrfs, make a snapshot
>>
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I'm using both versions of handbrake(GUI and CLI) to convert the same movie on two different computers but the output files are always different even though they share the same preset. Can CPUs make encoding just a little bit different from model to model?
>>
Are there any actual statistics on what are the most used Linux distributions? Distrowatch is clearly flawed but I don't see any other sources.
>>
>>78830080
no
>>
>>78830051
does the codec guarantee determinism with the settings you've chosen?
chances are, unless you've configured it otherwise, your codec doesn't not care about being perfectly deterministic across different cpus, things like available extensions and core count differences can affect the output, typically in only subtle ways that don't really affect quality
>>
>>78830080
If they have steam installed and are opted in to their HW thing you can look there
>>
>>78830051
>>78830139
-- on that note, there are often settings to ensure deterministic results (the same every time), but this may come at a speed penalty for both cpus
>>
>>78829981
I have ext there. I was wondering if I can backup some specific folder to safely kill yum and swap files for old ones before rebooting to avoid damage.
>>
how do I learn to use linux for good. every time I try it gets fucked up from an update and stops working. is there a way I can back up my data but update the OS?
>>
>>78830182
why not just take a copy of your rootfs? (rsync/tar) it's not that large, is it?
>>
>>78830139
>>78830158
I see. The file size is usually off by just a few MB and if I don't compare them like this I can't really see the difference but my brain gets angry about it still..
>>
Anybody knows how to sort an array in bash but ignoring a leading string if it exists?

Here is the initial array
array=( file1 file8 subfolder/file2 sub/file4 file7 )

And the result should be this
sortedArray=( file1 subfolder/file2 sub/file4 file7 file8 )

How can I sort ignoring anything before the slash? I can't figure it out, it works if I loop with basename but then the resulting array doesn't have the leading string, which I need...
>>
>>78830198
you need to learn to work through problems, not reinstall
linux stuff tends to be much easier to fix, with reinstallation only being necessary in the most extreme of cases, like the disk it's on actually dying
>>78830220
don't worry about it, it's normal
>>
>>78830051
It's the norm if you use multithreading to speed up the encoding process.
>>
>>78816161
it prepares you to add MOAR DRIVES into the filesystem. or to resize the logical volumes on the fly.

but desu I've been running LVM for years and never messed with it. I rather mount new drives to mountpoints. and my / never got large enough to resize the mountpoints


also if one drive in a LVM pool fails ur fucked.

next fresh install will be bare metal $filesystem_of_the_day

just too lazy to move my current install to non-lvm
>>
>>78830206
Welp I may try it this way instead of splitting hair.
>>
>>78830344
that picrelated is my X280. my workstation has a lot more drives in but it's in the office and I can't be assed to log into it right now
>>
>>78816832
macos can do this, too. and it dont uses registry shit - but app-specific .plist files
>>
What do you guys think of Qubes OS?
>>
>>78816645
the windows registry was for performance reasons, gnome is too new for that to be the case
>>78816832
possible with dot files, haven't they heard of inotify?
>>
>>78822876
Xue
>>
>>78830198
>every time I try it gets fucked up from an update and stops working
I'd suggest you start by figuring out why exactly this happens.
Most reasonable distributions shouldn't be having those sorts of issues unless you specifically go against developer recommendations (frankendebianing or partially upgrading arch for example)
>>
>>78830225
I figured it out by adding a leading slash if the string didn't have one and then removing it but this is ugly as shit. Any idea on how to do this more efficiently?

This gives me the order I wanted:

#!/bin/bash
array=( file1 file8 subfolder/file2 sub/file4 file7 )
sortedArray=( $( for i in ${array[@]}; do [[ "$i" == *\/* ]] || i="/$i"; echo "$i"; done | sort -t/ -k2 ) )
finalArray=( $( for k in ${sortedArray[@]}; do [[ "$k" == \/* ]] && echo ${k:1} || echo $k; done ) )

for j in ${finalArray[@]}; do
echo $j
done


file1
subfolder/file2
sub/file4
file7
file8
>>
>>78830490
>the windows registry was for performance reasons
That was a fig leaf. The real reason was because jackass win16 developers kept writing conflicting settings to windows.ini and breaking the system so Microsoft took their toys away.
>>
>>78830198
Its not the users fault if faulty binaries are being distributed. Install Gentoo if you want trouble free upgrades.
>>
>>78830882
well i guess that would make sense, too
>>
>>78830198
>is there a way I can back up my data but update the OS?
Yes, put /home on a separate partition.

Unlike windows applications GNU/Linux applications store data separately from installation files. That's because of the security. On GNU/Linux applications are installed as root but run as your normal user, so the running application has no permission to modify itself. That also means it's impossible to store data anywhere but /home. And your package manager will never install to /home, so you have a perfect separation.

Put / on one partition and /home on another. Then you can literally reinstall the whole OS without losing any data, because you just reinstall to / and then re-mount /home at the end with all your data still intact.
>>
>>78830198
Don't install things outside of package management. Like if you want nVidia drivers, you can't just download it from their web site and run the installer. Your distro has a package for that so it gets rebuilt with every kernel update.
>>
is elementary os a meme?
if it is, and I assume so, can someone help me choose a distro for my x61? preferably that I can use a small bitmap font for since >1024x768. I plan to use it only for webdev (in bed, the exhaust on x61 is on the side which is good if you’re in bed) so vscode + chrome is all I need. I’d like to be able to hide the window titles, not sure if that’s done with a wm or? sorry for being retarded. thank you
>>
>>78831062
vscode+chrome will be awful on an x61 regardless of OS.
>>
>>78818473
because to be frank, Linux is not good for gaming at all. The Linux distro that games the best is the one which runs wine the best.
>>
>>78831147
is there something else I can use on it, just for writing javascript mostly? or maybe use ssh?
>>
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I'm using Gentoo and I have a collection of source code packages mounted at /usr/src. Are the packages at /var/cache/distfiles/ genuine stuff or something Gentoo specific?
>>
>>78831517
Get a stronger build server, even just a Linux desktop PC in a closet or something, and install https://github.com/cdr/code-server/ on it. It's VSCode that runs in a browser tab so all the filesystem I/O, build tools, LSP servers, etc. run on a remote machine, and you can just use Chrome or Chromium on the x61. Chrome by itself on an x61 should still be OK with a lightweight distro like Lubuntu.
>>
>>78830792
that wouldn't work for something like sub/sub/file3 right? since you're taking the second field as a key.
I guess it's not a problem if you wont ever come across this case
>>
>>78831906
Yeah nested subdirectories are not a problem in this case. I just need to sort ignoring the folder if it has one
>>
I have been using encfs but it has some known problems. Not that it really matters, I don't think anybody who would steal my hdd would try to encrypt them.
Is there some other encfs like tools?
I tried to emerge ecryptfs but I would have to rebuild my kernel.
>>
>>78831814
Genuine stuff, straight from upstream, usually downloaded from a Gentoo mirror.
>>
Windows 10 just keeps getting worse and worse with every update. I'm considering switching to Linux. Which version of Linux should I get? I want something that works sort of similar to Windows so I don't have to re-learn everything. And I want it to work without hours of configuration. I just wanna browse 4chan and watch Anime
>>
>>78832365
>want something that works sort of similar to Windows so I don't have to re-learn everything.
Linux is not Windows. Accept that you will need to re learn things or you're going to have a bad time.
>>
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>>78814661
Question /g/entoomen. I have an Nvidia card. Is there any benefit to going with say Pop Os with the green drivers over say literally anything else and getting the drivers myself?
>>
>>78832365
>Windows 10 just keeps getting worse
>I want something that works sort of similar to Windows
>>
>>78832365
No distro is Windows, not even Mint even if the Mint people keep telling you that. If you are serious you want to have Linux supported hardware and possibly even build a new setup.
>>
So first of all, I am retarded. Yes. Also a leenucks noob.

I tried to install this https://github.com/ciehanski/libgen-cli because it looks based af and would be extremely useful to me.

The thing is, I'm a retard and I seem to miss something. I followed the instruction, installed go-lang, but it doesn't work in my terminal.

For some reason while go itself has a directory in my home directory and files from libgen-cli are there, it simply doesn't work. I don't know what I'm missing.

My distro is openSUSE.
>>
>>78832643
I might have fucked up $PATH or something. But I don't have a clue what I did wrong (was it golang $PATH variable? I put it in my $HOME/.profile file). If any anon could help it would be greatly appreciated.
>>
>>78832643
>>78832661
I don't know go, but you should verify the vars are working in a terminal by exporting them to that terminal manually then running your program. Once you know the vars do in fact work then you can worry about which file you need to export them in later.
Also that page mentions something about $GOPATH, you might want to look into that.
>>
Is there any way to preview the resulting file of a bash filter? I'm using .gitattributes to set filters and remove sensitive data from my commits, but I can't figure out how to see what is going to be pushed to the server
>>
What exactly is the difference between dbus & unix sockets?
What other IPC methods are available, when is one more appropriate than the other?

I am not very knowledgeable, thus would appreciate your wise words.
>>
>>78833124
Shit, I meant a git filter
>>
>>78823784
nah you oughtn't
>>
>>78832571
I mean I want a start menu and a task bar at the bottom of the screen and icons on my desktop. I have looked at Ubuntu and Ubuntu doesn't have that apparently?
>>78832623
Okay thanks. Guess I'll just stick to windows then
>>
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>>78818970
For me it's Void + Window Maker
>>
>>78833324
what you're looking for is called a desktop environment. it's basically look and feel of your desktop operating system. the major ones are KDE, GNOME, xfce and LXQt. compare them to see which you'll like the most. i've heard Cinnamon (which is Mint's flavour of GNOME) is pretty close to Windows visually.
>>
My HDD died but I had a done a backup of / with tgz (following a tutorial). So I will reinstall with the same partition scheme on an HDD of the same size, so maybe I can use the backup.
But I was wondering, should I apply the backup before or after upgrading (I use an old debian on CD because this is an old computer)?
>>
>>78832571
>I want something that works sort of similar to Windows
classic windows style was cool, what are you on about?
>>
>>78833145
I think you're supposed to worry about that before committing changes. Not before pushing. You don't want to commit your sensitive data at all.
"git status" and "git diff" can help you see what changes are made before committing.
>>
>>78826780
poor man's fedora
>>
>>78827101
>ALSA replacement
ALSA is not a sound server, it's a lower-level kernel software framework. There are no ALSA replacements.
>>
>>78833445
What's the appeal of gnustep/windowmaker?
It seems like its strength would be if there was a large community of people making applications for it, but if there's not then is there some other upside to it?
>>
>>78833598
Wait you're right... git diff shows me the file with all filters applied. Not sure what I was doing before but didn't apply any filters. Thanks anon!
>>
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>be me
>be distro hoppin'
>get filtered by arch partition sequence
>feels bad bro
>>
>>78833743
it looks cool.
>>
>>78833760
What problems did you have with the partitioning?
>>
>>78833784
the instructions i found were unclear. i'll prolly try again after i finish playing with debian+i3
>>
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I'm editing files but I have very little education with Linux.
I'm editing my .bashrc, .bash_aliases, .Xresources & .xinitrc.
Are any of these supposed to be executable through "chmod +x /.EXAMPLE"
I'm looking into a few linux courses at my local collage rather than getting an LPIC-1 or CompTIA A+ Cert.
But as for now I know very little.
>>
>>78824036
what's the point if you're not a libre enthusiast
>>
>>78826753
install SeaMonkey
>>
>>78833830
No. Scripts aren't really "executables" in the normal sense anyway, they're just text files. For example you're really supposed to launch a bash script like "bash myscript.sh", and so bash is the actual executable (interpreter) which reads the script text. So the script doesn't need to be executable.
But your shell comes with a convenience feature to make life easier, if you make a script "executable" then it'll know to run it based on the "shebang" at the top of the script file.

But the files you listed don't need to be marked executable because they're called by something else.
>>
what le heck..
it's a cat is a shirt, with a mug of tea
>>
>>78833830
>Are any of these supposed to be executable through "chmod +x /.EXAMPLE"
no. .Xresources is loaded with xrdb. .bashrc and .bash_aliases are sourced in the shell, not executed. .xinitrc is sourced if you use xinit or startx (you most likely do), so executable bits are not necessary.
>>
>>78833760
Learn to boot custom kernels that go for a specific root partition before going neckbeard distros.
>>
>>78832427
>>78832623
bad replies
>>78832365
you can make your system literally look like windows with right desktop environments
>>
>>78834410
A white man wearing blackface is still white.
I made my KDE look like Mac OS (somewhat, just top panel+dock, not the gay Big Sir themes), that doesn't mean that it is operated under the hood in any way similar to Mac OS. This is especially true for Windows because not being UNIX like it operates very differently from any other mainstream OS.
>>
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>be me
>running ubuntu
>get terminator terminal
>nice.jpg
>have old ibm mechanical keyboard
>no Super Key.

What is the superkey when you don't have a superkey?
>>
What are some good desktop environments for laptops? I am using Cinnamon on my PC but it look absolutely shitty on a small laptop screen. You can't scale a lot of UI things, so they look tiny and are hard to click on.
>>
>>78834545
You dont need it in the terminal, only desktop uses superkey.
>>
>>78832365
>I just wanna browse 4chan and watch Anime
tons of distros are good enough for that. just make a couple of google searches and check distrowatch to get an idea. To name one, there's Linux Mint.
>>
>>78833580
I just don't understand why someone would want to replicate the supposedly bad user experience they had on Windows if they're making the effort of switching to GNU/Linux.
>>
>>78834743
I think he's talking about its gui, not overall experience
>>
>>78834789
yeah whatever I think all new users should go balls deep with at least arch + wm. just break the conditioning
>>
>>78823135
it just werks
>>
>>78834743
Windows is a nice experience, when it works
>>
>>78834498
who cares what's under the hood? Unless you're an extremely anal-retentive system programmer
>operates very differently
you can also choose two different system libraries on the same gnulinux os that operate very differently. These specialist details matter nothing to the end user.
>>
>>78834743
>>78834789
Yeah like I said I just can't get used to the stupid top panel + dock thing that Ubuntu has going on. Are they trying to replicate Apple? I can't do shit on a Mac. As long as all the buttons are in a similar place and I can do stuff like Windows+E for file browser, I'm fine.
>>
>>78834825
I agree but it's a bit too autistic. I've never liked non-floating wms for example, there's no reason to use them, they're not some kind of an advanced learning tool, they're only your personal aesthetic choice. Breaking the conditioning shouldn't turn into another conditioning where minimalist dickery reigns supreme.
>>
>>78834963
Try installing a software on GNU/Linux the "Windows way". Or other basic administration tasks you might be used to on Windows. I'm not saying he has to become a greybeard Linux sysadmin, just that he has to be aware that he might have to relearn some basic things that he might have taken for granted until now.
>>
>>78835187
>Try installing a software on GNU/Linux the "Windows way".
what's the "Windows way"? On windows, I download cracked no-install archives from trackers and run them ootb.
>>
>>78835052
just do this senpai >>78814768
>>
>>78814768
>NormieOS
>kernel 5.9
>normies use Nvidia
>>
>>78822876
it's also featured as a playable character in SuperTuxKart
>>
>>78820625
"/" (root) partition and also a "/home" partition
>>
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when my kernel or a module eg nvidia updates in pikaur, dkms fails to find kernel headers but if I just pikaur -S kernel the dkms hooks work

is there a way I can avoid this in the future
>>
>>78834571
lxde
>>
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>>78830418
it's qubic.
>>
>>78830080
https://www.zdnet.com/article/whats-the-most-popular-linux-of-them-all/
>>
if i make an image of a bitlocker driver with dd can i mount the image somehow?
>>
>>78835666
you can probably use a loopback device
>>
>>78822344
>is that bullshit
most likely
MBR is the thinking man's partition table
>>
>>78822283
rude
>>
>>78835687
right yeah but i mean can i make the drive readable
i guess probably not since it's a corporate laptop anyway and the decryption key is probably only owned by IT
>>
>>78822344
>>78835713
there's no reason to use MBR if GPT is supported
>>
>>78821043
>it seems to me it doesnt use drivers (e.g., amd, noveau)
it isn't possible
>>
what are some relatively uncommon and/or unknown but still useful and comfy distros?
>>
>>78835797
I can create a system with 1 (one) partition on MBR. Can I do the same on GPT?
>>
>>78835848
Void
>>
>>78835848
guix seems interesting.
>>
>>78834545
Use xmodmap to map right Alt to Super or something like that, but really just stop boomer LARPing and get a tenless with a super key.
>>
>>78835848
Alpine
>>
>>78835855
you can
# parted /dev/sda print
Model: ATA ST2000VX000-1ES1 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 2000GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags:

Number Start End Size File system Name Flags
1 1049kB 2000GB 2000GB primary

you can also create a system with up to 128 partitions
>>
>In 2019, 100% of the world’s supercomputers run on Linux.
>Out of the top 25 websites in the world, only 2 aren’t using Linux.
>96.3% of the world’s top 1 million servers run on Linux.
>90% of all cloud infrastructure operates on Linux and practically all the best cloud hosts use it.
>>
>>78835985
so you can have a single partition with the bootflag?
>>
>>78835848
EasyOS
>>
>>78836029
you can boot from a single GPT partition in legacy BIOS mode. it's UEFI that requires 100MiB FAT partition with a bootloader.
>>
>>78836003
Yep, and in addition to that, 75% of all smartphones run on Linux. Linus Torvalds said he is bummed out by the whole situation because he originally started Linux as a desktop OS.
>>
>>78836179
what are some real advantages of GPT that affect real users then? (apart from higher number of partitions, but it's hardly an advantage since it's achieved with extended partitions on MBR)
>>
>>78836201
he originally started Linux as a kernel.
>>
>>78836259
partition size greater than 2tib
>>
I have two drives, both 2tb. I want one to simply exist as a backup of the other. I would prefer this done in a way where I can simply plug the backup drive into another computer, mount it and all its contents are readable without any filesystem finagling. Whats the best way to do this?
>>
>>78836259
UEFI support. UEFI's booting process is much simpler and faster that that of a BIOS. i don't even have a bootloader, my kernel is loaded directly by the motherboard.
>>
>>78836356
RAID1
>>
>>78836391
can you configure a raid group when theres data on the disk already?
>>
>>78835855
>counting the number of partitions
Never heard of this autism before. But now since we started it, I can boot a Linux kernel without a bootsector code since I use UEFI.
>>
>>78836622
with RAID1 specifically it is possible, but you better already have backups on a third drive anyway. it's easy to fuck shit up.
>>
>>78836726
Yea I dont have room to do that :/
I might sync them manually or with an rsync cron or somethimg. dd cron maybe. Every software raid guide is telling me to zero superblocks and Im not going to do that.
>>
>>78836375
>UEFI's booting process is much simpler and faster that that of a BIOS
show some benchmarks
>>
>>78836314
not a real advantage for non-server use cases
>>
>>78836375
besides, you've just said that I can't have a one partition system with UEFI.
>>
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what is so special about Slackware? I get why people choose Gentoo or Arch, but what is the main point in installing Slackware? not a provocative post, I'm just too dumb and skimming wikipedia haven't worked out.

also almost sent it with 'l' skipped in the first mention of a distro lmao
>>
>>78836892
https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/149761
googled that for you. there's also a lot of video comparisons on youtube
>>
>>78836929
how is that a problem? it's just an implementation detail
>>
>>78837016
>1 second difference
meh
>>78837036
what if I don't like having more than 1 partition
>>
Hello frenz,

I installed ubuntu on my conputer, and replaced gnome with kde plasma with some packages from apt.

Ever since then, my computer fucks up in weird ways. If it goes to sleep, after it wakes up, all my open programs will just be black. And my speakers always disconnect no matter what. After rebooting it's fine, but this didn't happen on gnome.

Did I likely fuck something up or is kde + ubuntu just a bad combo? I have an rtx 2080 ti if it matters. Pretty sure I'm mostly up to date on packages.
>>
>>78837008
it was one of the first distros, that's about it
>>
>>78837136
>>1 second difference
it's 3 seconds without bootloader on UEFI and I reckon the difference would be bigger on HDD.
>what if I don't like having more than 1 partition
you're out of luck because the vast majority of people just don't give a shit
>>
>>78837186
I'm almost certain that's an nvidia thing.
You could try upgrading nvidia drivers
Or try xorg if you're on wayland
>>
>>78837008
virtually unchanged classic distro from the golden era of 1995-2005, no layers of abstraction in front of the user, has only basic package tools, resorts to classic (albeit tedious at times) ways of maintaining a system, transparent, doesn't follow any trends, bare-bones (more like bareback amirite)
slackware is like crux except crux delivers everything that slackware only promises
>>
>>78837226
>you're out of luck
no, I just use MBR.
>>
>>78836721
>I can boot a Linux kernel without a bootsector code since I use UEFI.
show your partitions
>>
>>78837263
I thought I tried updating my drivers but you're probably right, I'll check again. And I don't think I'm on wayland. What does that even do? Thanks for the advice!
>>
>>78837332
idk what you are after but there is one less link in the chain.
>>
>>78837393
>>78837393
>>78837393
>>78837393
>>78837393

new
>>
for real now if i want to switch to linux which distro is good because i see gentoo praised here like crazy along arch, i tried mint and liked it but dont know that much about distros.
>>
>>78837594
get Void
Gentoo would be unnecessarily anal-retentive for an intermediate user
also install gentoo is a /g/ meme, so perhaps you've been meme'd
>>
>>78837594
keep using mint and try to apply other distro's solutions you learn to it, then you will see they are mostly the same. you can try others when you feel their defaults feel more akin to your likely



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