The thread where you ask all your welding, blacksmithing and what ever questions related to metal.>forge vs torch >what is the difference between high and low carbon steel>where can I get a cheap "anvil">How to improve my welding>how to get rid of rustAnd much more questions:)
>>1871500I've watched Andrew Camarata use his MIG welder and it looks super easy and effective. It's a Millermatic 251 that runs about 3000 bucks for the newer model, which is out of my range.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuUrPHy6At8What's the lowest cost MIG that is good for occasional use and performs something like his Miller, and what gas would I use for "ordinary" steel welding?
>>1871503how are you this stupidwhat the fuck do you need gas welding for if you don't know what argon is.for fucksake GTAW was originally called heliarc for a reasondo you not even look shit up?
>>1871503I'm not big into welding I've done it like 10 hours but I have a friend that's is big on the craft.A tip he told me is that if you want to have a gas metal arc welding you shouldn't go cheap because a bad one can have lots of problems and will not last you many years.He told me that if I dont have money to buy that it would be a safe bet to get a stick welder Because they are generally cheaper and will last you longer and
>>1871500Were can I get anvil shaped objects?Guy in the video had some solid advice but I'm not near any factory or metal shopShould I just bite it and buy an anvil?https://youtu.be/SHWd0bMVSOU
>>1871500I’m going to begin sand casting iron parts. What’s the recommended way to protect from rust, oil based paint? Surfaces that must be flat and smooth will just have to be continuously oiled?
>>1871500Dubs checked.What is the difference between high and low carbon steels?Where can I get the cheapest anvil?
>>1871503For occasional use you really should just do stick. Takes some practice, but it's infinitely versatile>>1871519Just go to harbor freight and get their $30 anvil
>>1871751Low carbon is softer and more flexible and high carbon is harder and more brittle (and also more expensive and harder to work with(blacksmithing)) If you want short shit like knifes you should aim to higer carbon for better edge and harder core but if you want flexible and long shit you should find a middle ground or even combine different steel in different areas of your work depends on your work purpose
>>1871646Do you have to cast iron?In general casting iron is a lot harder and in general not as good as castings bronze or copper or whatever. (Which also rust a lot slower and keeps better condition then iron)What are you making?
>>1871855ThisStick master race
>>1871859And any ideas about where to get cheap anvils?
>>1871860Gingery lathe. Iron is superior for its vibration dampening and mass for this application, I believe. Plus scrap iron if the quantities I need are much easier and cheaper to come by (correct me if I’m wrong)
>>1871907Unfortunately it's a hard problems to face and it's going to be mostly luck >>1871855 gave a solid advice And you can always try to find anvil shaped objects like the guy in the video >>1871519 linkedYou can always try scrap yards or Garage Sales but then agin it will come to luck
>>1871859Also they heat in a little different way but it's never much of a deal breaker
>>1871950AhThen you caoxidi sacrificial coatings with aluminum or zinc which oxidize sacrificially to ensure the protected element remains corrosion free.Or you can just paint it evry 3-5 months depending on the condition
>>1872082Then you can use*
Pretty sure next time I get into the town where the PA is I'm picking one of these up, as long as I can test it and it doesn't seem completely unhardened like apparently some of them are. Been using a combination of a sledgehammer head set in a post and a mostly flat chunk of soft iron and I'm tired of not knowing whether my fuckups are because of equipment or ability. I've been keeping an eye out for more than a year and at least in this area mid sized anvils go for >5 leafbucks a pound even in shitty condition and I've given up on the dream of some old lady who just wants it gone asking 50$ as long as I pick it up.
>>1871500Ok, the question I have asked a few times before but no one has been able to answer. When dealing with laminated steels (steel on wrought iron) will I have any issues with annealing and bending it? Any risks regarding the different metals bending differently and on cracking or the lamination sperating? Can I just toss them in a bon fire as I do with old files to anneal? I assume it will work just fine, but have been able to find nothing regarding this. I have a couple old laminated plane irons in odd sizes that I would like to use to cut up and form into more useful tools.
>>1872084110 Ib seems solid for an anvil and 330 isn't that badBut Like you said when you get there be sure to test it out or at least search for reviews of it, some people I know had bad experience with cast anvil so IDKIn any why before you buy an anvil check https://blacksmithcode.com/anvil-price-guide/They have some solid advices
>>1872085I have little experience with laminated steels but I know that different parts of what you make will act and bend at least a little differentLike with swords that have a hard blade to cut better and a softer body so it won't break or over bendRead Wikipedia IDK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laminated_steel_blade?wprov=sfla1What do you want to make btw?
>>1872091I will just be making some wood working tools, they are nothing that needs laminated steel, but I have these plane irons sitting about and two are odd sizes so more work to sell than it is worth and ones has some major damage that makes it not worth fixing up, so might as well cut them up and make something more useful from them.
https://www.harborfreight.com/15-lb-rugged-cast-iron-anvil-69425.htmlOp get one of these. It's solid for starting out and if you find you like iron work you can get a bigger better one, if you don't. It's only $20
>>1872179True 20$ is really cheap but iron cast anvils are not very good.I'm not a total beginner I'm doing this for 6 months in a shop a really nice man rant for people who want to use his stuff and his experience Only problem it's 70 dollars for 3 hours so I'm thinking of making my own space.
>>1872091i dont get why youd need different metal hardnesses throughout an anvil. why cant just have it uniform?
GUYS I DID MY FIRST PAID WELDING JOB! My buddy needed his exhaust manifold repaired and he paid me $25 to do it for him. The metal was a bit dirty so I had to keep tacking it, but it feels strong and when I blew air through it, I didn't feel any leaks at my welds. Any tips on tidying it up? I have to get it back to him Monday and I want it to look a little better before I paint.
>>1872699The best way to smooth it is by forging it with a hammer
>>187269925$ worth of grinding wheels
>>1872699Post a before pic.
>>1871500what order of operations to avoid warpage when making 90 degree when welding?
>>1873554What do you mean by 90 degree welding? A fillet weld, outside corner, flat stock at a 90, tubing at a 90?This is how I deal with it and it's worked well.With fillet welds and corners butt the pieces together and clamp them. Then tack the corner at both ends. If it's thin sheet, I'll tack about a 1/4" in from the end of the fillet/corner instead of on the end to prevent blowing out the corner. If it's a long joint, I add a small tack every few inches.For corners of flat stock and tube I set up with about a 1mm gap between the pieces. Then tack the outside corner, it'll pull the gap closed, check that the joint is still square and tack the inside. If there is still a gap at the inside but the angle is square, open the angle to open the gap just a hair and then tack the inside. You want to increase the gap just enough to account for how much the tack will pull it closed. I use TIG so I've got a lot of control and can put down very fine tack welds with little to no filler. If a joint pulls together too tight and isn't square I can easily grind the tack out in just a second. A friend of mine who MIG welds feeds out about a half inch of filler wire, turn off the wire feed and just taps the filler on the joint for tacks. Square and round tube gets a little more complicated but the basics still apply and the rest is just something you learn with experience.The key things are to control your heat and account for movement and shrinkage (never go on a first date on a cold day). If you're welding a long piece either use a copper or aluminum heatsink as a backer or stitch weld (if allowed) coming in from opposite sides giving the metal time to cool a bit. Move faster as you weld so the heat in the metal is more uniform. The metal at the start of a seam weld is a lot cooler than the metal at the end.
Why can't I weld in corners? I make perfect beads flat but when I'm doing like a fillet weld I get slag inclusions all over the place and I don't see what I'm doing wrong
>>1873936Try adjusting your angle. Pics would help.
>>1871500Every time I try to forge a blade I create ugly bumps in itTips for how I can improve?
>>1875671get a proper hammer. as heavy as you can handle, and with a rounded striking surface.The bumps are usually caused by striking at an angle (caused by striking from the arm rather than the wrist, which usually happens with light hammers). You can offest smaller misalignments with a rounded surface, and minimize the chance of them happening by using a heavy hammer that'll almost work itsself, needing only minor corrections from the wrist.Or go traditional and just align the tool, while an assistant strikes it with a sledgehammer.If you're to twinky to strike from the wrist with any suitable weight, you can also play around with the height of your anvil until your hammer hits perfectly. In that case though, you'll need to readjust every time you use a different hammer.Any of the above will reduce the bumps to wide, shallow ones. For getting rid of those, spend some more time fucking (For the americans: fucking is the process of repeatedly jamming the blade into a barrel of coarse grinding sand and water or oil to get rid of these small uneven spots). Fucking is harder to do than grinding or wirebrushing, but it gives a much nicer finish. And if you don't go all the way, the bumps remain just barely visible, giving you that handforged look some people like.
>>1875708Thank you dude :)
Why do so many people have super heavy welding tables?
any welding expert here?!i'm trying to weld a 4130 steel tube structure, some joints have up to 5 tubes to weld together.my question is, can i weld 2~3 tubes together then weld the rest another time on the same joint or do i have to weld all 5 together at once?thank you
Is there an infograph to arc welding? Especially in regards to welding vertically and upside down? I'm sick of flipping heavy shit 4 times just to get all sides.
>>1875728Not my fault americans always think with their dicks. If you can't even watch a sword going into a barrel without lusting for the smiths ass, you've got serious problems.
>>1875809What's the thickness of the base material and what filler are you using? How are you planning to preheat and cool it?
What's the difference between SMAW and MMAW? Aren't they both just stick welding?
>>1876822MMA and SMAW? Same process, as far as I know.
Hey, I'm a 20 something college drop out and want to get into both blacksmithing and welding; blacksmithing as a hobby(if i can do it as a career I would but from what I've heard its not really a professional field anymore as much as it is a hobbyist one although id be really happy if this is wrong) and to do welding as an actual career. I was in a rather good university completing a History and Classical Studies degree but I just couldnt deal with it anymore and wanna try this out instead. Any advice? I'm not exactly sure at all what I have to do and Google isn't exactly helpful. Any kind of information would be useful and insightful, thank you
I finished the basic frame of my first welding table. I'll be wheeling it outside everytime I weld so I want to add casters. I also don't want the table to move so I want to add legs too. Is there a way that will allow me to do both quickly so I can switch between legs and casters? I don't want to have to use leveling screws every time I move it around.
>>1876972Bump for this lad
>>1876571the thikness varies between 0.035 inch and 0.070a liitle pre heat for safety the filler will be cromo rod 4130
>>1872084That's the chinesium anvil.I have one. It's okay for the price.They're on eBay, Amazon, probably other places.
>>1872084>>1877684The princess auto ones are pretty likely to be the same chinesium ones on the internet so I'd get the cheapest one. If you are worried about the hardness you can try and do it yourself. They even tell you the steel they use to cast it on PA.However I'm of the opinion that if you start getting into larger anvil sizes it's better to just buy a reputable new/used one vs a cheap chinesium one, it's a tool that will die after your grandkids
>>1876978Why not use locking casters?
>>1877707I keep looking for a better anvil... everyone wants amazing prices on Craigslist. There's one right now for close to $10 / pound.
>>1872699If someone brought that to me, I would cut the entire section out and weld a patch where the mountain is.
>>1877717Try looking at rhino anvils they used to have prices on the website but they don't anymore. It used to be 1250 + shipping for their 242 lb anvil and their 142 lb one was about half that. I know you're a leaf but I don't see why you shouldn't be able to buy one.
>>1877709The ones I have are locking but I don't trust them to stay still, plus I need to be able to adjust the legs sometimes since I want the table to be a little higher for some projects.I found 2 methodshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R19mwAXKppMhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dGNyc1kHAwWish I had seen them before because I have a shelf where the mechanisms would be.
>>1877013If the welds are right next to each other I would take the time to thoroughly heat the adjoining area and welds along with a decent post weld cool down. Just to make sure the first set of welds aren't compromised. If they're a couple inches apart I would just weld it as usual. I've only welded 4130 with ER80S though and, as you know, it's much more forgiving.
>>1875708>carbonJust wanted to say that your tips really helped me today bro thank you
>>1877957Man I need sleep why the fuck did I copy pasted >carbon
What are some uses for an anvil for a non blacksmith homeowner jackoff?
New machine, ceremonial cart build
>>1878205Decent enough on the 3rd pass, I've used one of these Millers before though. I run it a little hotter than the recommended settings on the autoset. It was around 100f today so I was putting on my jacket and welding like the tasmanian devil for about 3 minutes at a time before I had to go inside and sit in front of the AC.
>>1878213Out of focus but it is indeed level somehow.
>>1878214The motor of the dry cut saw hits the upright so I'll have to move the angle pieces on the base forwards a bit.
>>1878215Will use it for a bit and if I don't want to change anything will strip it down and paint. Thought I'd share why I did not get the multimatic even though it's only $300 more, maybe other people are also looking into a MIG only vs multiprocess. On top of the $300, it's around $500 for the rest of the TIG equipment, and it's a DC only TIG. I would also have had to get a second bottle of pure argon since I would mostly use DC TIG for stainless. I will end up getting an AC/DC TIG as a standalone, but even if you only need a DC TIG, it's not that much more to get a Maxstar DC TIG and then not have to swap a bunch of controls and the tank all the time.
>>1871503I'd lean toward stick but then you'd be cutting out alot of stuff like exhaust welding, sheet metal work, or if you have a bigger project with alot of welding, you'll fucking hate yourself for going with stick, especially when you have to tack something that's not clamped down, like if you're doing a larger project on the shop floor.Ordinary steel MIG welding you'd want a gas mix of 75/25 argon/co2. The co2 is there for penetration. So anything thicker than 3/32" you'd want to use that on. If you're doing sheet metal work then 100% argon is the way to go. It doesn't penetrate as much and sort of 'floats' the weld on the surface, which will reduce blowing out your weld joint.If you're working on a limited budget(which you didn't specify) I'd go with a cheapo lincoln electric MIG that's gas capable. Flux core MIG(gasless) has it's place but it's mostly shit to weld with. They can be had in the $300-400 range. You'll just be running into it's puny duty cycle ALOT. Look up what a duty cycle on a welder is. And also gas bottles are expensive($200-$400 depending on size), but refills are cheap($5-$20 depending on size). Sorry, But a MIG on the level you specified 'for cheap' doesn't really exist. My miller 212 does just fine for everything i need though, and it's about $900 cheaper.and most important of all, remember you can weld anything with the puniest welder as long as you have enough bevels.
>>1871519A piece of railroad rail is actually pretty decent as an anvil. It's made out of manganese steel and has already been work hardened to hell and back. You can even take an angle grinder to it to make it your own.Plus sometimes you can get them for free.
>>1871508candleman strikes again
>>1871503I bought this when there was a coupon available cost me $350 https://www.harborfreight.com/mig-140-professional-welder-with-120-volt-input-64804.htmlpaid $100 for a small used argon/co2 tank at the local welding supply store, costs $30 per refillthe entire setup cost me around 600-700 and it works pretty alright. The ground clamp is annoying because finding somewhere to attach it to is a nightmare sometimes
>>1878238True. I built a heavy duty stand for a friend of mine to hold a 40" length and a vice earlier this summer. It's heavy duty stuff. His anvils are mounted on massive oak tree trunks. He does black smithing and fine jewelry but, oddly, doesn't weld.
My first welding table, only using material I had laying around that I got for free. The extendable legs are a little wonky since the threaded rod has a little play in it and I'm not sure how to tackle that issue.I still need a top and feet plates. I originally wanted to have a tray/draw under the top but I ran into a problem with the extendable part where the square tubing wouldn't fit into the other square tubing. Wasn't a big deal since it meant more welding practice but now I can't add a tray the same way I intended without cutting into the storage shelf underneath. Any ideas on how to do it?Anyone from Melb? Will I get done going to the steal yard now? I don't have a sheet for the top laying around.
>>1871500evolution tools cold cut 14 inch chop saw vs harbor freight 1 HP 4 in. x 6 in. Horizontal/Vertical Metal Cutting Band Saw. for angle cuts and shit.
Question, is it possible to make a coal forge with an aluminum tabletop? Would the radiant heat be enough to melt it? If not how thick would you have to make it
>>1871500>how to get rid of rustElectrolosys
>>1878574is rust bad or is protective i am so confused on rust.
>>1878544I wouldn't unless there is an insulating layer. Aluminum melts at 1200 or so degrees F, which is like an orange heat in iron and steel. Even with most of the heat going up, that seems to be an unacceptable risk when it means a possibility of molten aluminum and flaming coals spilling everywhere. With insulation (even just dirt) it would be fine. There's a whole family of forges that is called "Just a box of dirt". The said box is usually wood.>>1878581Depends. Scale can be a sponge for wax/oil, but you usually want it relatively thin and non-crumbly. Scale/rust on iron or steel is is permeable to water and air though, so on it's own it won't protect anything. On other metals, like aluminum, copper, titanium, etc, the oxide layer will in fact protect from corrosion. They form a uniform and unbroken layer that prevents the base metal underneath from being reacted with. Titanium even stays shiny.
Is there a way to get the effect of cold-bluing on largeish pieces without just using gun bluing? Doing a table support out of structural steel tubing and don't need much of a protective finish, just like the look.Or am I just being dumb and should just go with a spray-on protective paint?
>>1878767Clean it up, gunblue then spray laquer. Or just wire brush if you can get it consistant
>>1878771Yeah that was the idea, just annoyed by the quantities of gunblue that might be involved to coat ~25ft of 1" square tubing. Wire brush -> gunblue till I get the look I want -> lacquer is probably the best bet. The 'rustic' look you get from slightly inconsistent bluing is what I'm going for.
Is steel wire good for making knives or something else?I have some 3 feet of scrap that I picked up from the street a while ago.
>>1878298Bump for this.
Friend just got laid off at his job as a welder. NY area. was thinking of learning the trade and possibly apprenticing. is it worth it?
>>1878805The problem with twisted or braided wire is the quantity of contaminates. With fresh cable you'll be dealing with some scale and a fair amount of oil. With old wire you'll be adding a fair amount of rust and who knows what else to the equation. I wouldn't use old cable for anything other than belt buckles or something ornate.
>>1878836>Friend just got laid off at his job>was thinking of learning the trade... is it worth it?Uh...Yes, it's a trade that will never go away. But if your friend got laid off and if he has any trouble finding another job then plan on moving somewhere else, like the Dakota's, if you want to make good money... Especially if you're unskilled.
>>1878836can't answer on whether it'll be worth it for employment, but if you've got a welder friend with time to kill at least get him to teach you the basics. It's a worthwhile skill to have even if you don't plan on pursuing it as a job.
Is there another guide like this with more information on angles, working up/down/upsidedown, and order?
>>1878860I found this, seems to require a lot of expensive tools I do not have.Well I guess the answer is you CAN do things with it, just not easy or important things.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-szM0eB_sRA
>>1879130and it can be that pretty and not hold an edge worth shit if the steel you start with isn't good.
>>1878232>sheet metal workWe used nothing but stick for structural metal stud work down to 18 gauge. My pop could weld 20g. Only recently have they started using MIG. Stick work just fine for sheet metal if you can actually weld.
>>1878836>was thinking of learning the trade and possibly apprenticing. is it worth it?If you are a union or pipe welder or certified underwater then yes. If you are a production welder then no. In the vast majority of the country welders make absolute shit money.>t.TIG welderI made Caterpillars and I can tell you the pay absolutely fucking sucks and that Caterpillar is fucking garbage and you should never buy anything Caterpillar or John Deere.
>>1879007That's memey and not entirely accurate. If you run hotter you move faster. Welds look different if you weld on Pulse. Most MIG is a drag method and you're never going to stack nickels like that. Stick and TIG are entirely different animals than MIG and the welds usually look a lot different.
>>1879408I thought it was a stick guide since following the advice has made my beads improve a lot.Do you have a better infograph to follow for stick?
>>1878544>>1878715My forge is made of wood, it just has dirt and firebricks between the fire and the woodIt works
I know blacksmithing is an art all it's own, but if I want to make suits of armor as a hobby how far could casting the metal in homemade molds take me? Of course I'd have to learn some welding too.
>>1879571>how far could casting the metal in homemade molds take meThis is a good place to begin, anon. Much of the best medieval armor was made of cast iron. The process of making a cast to fit a specific knight's body was difficult and dangerous, so use care anon.
>>1879582Cast iron is an alloy with at least 2% carbon. Not many people at the time actually knew how to get a furnace hot enough to melt iron/steel and with plate armor having about a 2mm thickness means they would need even higher temperatures than what they were capable of to get it to flow through the mold all the way.
>>1879582You are fucking retarded don't give tips about a subject you dont know>blacksmith and armor loverwith yeara of research about the field
>>1879638This and also cast iron is very brutal which isn't good for armor that need to absorb impact from heavy pole weapons and even bullets from early fire arms. Here is a very cool Armor Smith with a lot of videos about the making of armorIt's modern armor Smithing but it will give you the ideahttps://www.youtube.com/c/ArmorySmithWorkshop
>>1879668Relevant video https://youtu.be/6BozzBXBWsM
>>1879571Casting is very bad for armor Smithing unless you work with bronze and even then you probably wouldn't be able to make the type of armor you wantArmor Smithing is a very long, complete and different then what most people thinkhttps://youtu.be/aDSNezeW09U
>>1876972>if i can do it as a career I would but from what I've heard its not really a professional field anymoreYou've heard wrong. Blacksmiths specialising in decorations (stuff like fences, railings and window grates) still make quite a bit. There are also a few weaponsmiths that can live of their job, though that's obviously a field with much competition.>AdviceI'm not exactly a good smith (Only did some knives, swords and armor), so take this with a grain of salt.But to start, you can take literally any steel, a bbq grill with a hairdryer, any hammer and any massive metal object. Then play around with it until you get a feel for the metal. Especially at which colors you can start forming it, and when it'll start burning up - I'd even recommend deliberately burning a file or something similiar once, so it won't happen on a project you'Ve already put hours into.Then do simple stuff. Knives are good (though hardening is a bit complicated). Classic artistic practice pieces would be things like leaves and fishes (all in 2D), then coathangers (2D, then bent) and finally true 3D objects like doorknobs, curtain weights and the like.>Google isn't exactly helpfulhttps://www.anvilfire.com/index.phpThis site helped me quite a bit when I got started.
>>1878118Putting it into your garden to rust. There are far to many faggots doing this.
>>1879582>Much of the best medieval armor was made of cast ironBullshit. Medieval armor was mostly hardened steel. Cast iron and unhardened steel give very little protection against arrows or spears at any reasonable thickness, while hardened steel plate will even stop FMJs, and massively slow down Bodkins or crossbow bolts.
>>1871500It fall at the same speed.
>>1879735No you don't. That's only the case if there's a vacuum pulling you both faster than the anvil falls and there's no other factors coming into play.
>>1879569>>1879746I work in a studio with a gas forge in a metal shell I always wonder how well bricks do the job What is your experience with them?
Ferrous metallurgist here, ama
>>1872435shock absorption vs how flat and true the face will stay
any tips to create a forge for the first time? my family have a cabin in the mountains and me my dad and uncles all share an interest in smithing and I think it'd be a good addition to our trips up there but i dont know where to start exactly.mainly how do I create a reliable stream of air to the fuel without jury rigging a shop vac. or should I just do propane and fire bricks?
>>1878784Would automotive enamel clear coat stick to blued steel? Got a couple cans left over, waste not want not.
>>1879758My experience is that they are awesome and you can rearrange them however you want so you can put in it any shape you want and can spare on the fuel, but you have to learn to manage the fireI use exclusively charcoal because that's what is available to me, if I get me some coal I'll try that too. Charcoal is a bitch because unless it's in decent sized lumps you will have a bad fire, and after a while all the ash will start flying everywhere so you have to stop and clean the forge and light it again
>>1879746Noice, mine is a side blower with a water cooled tuyere. I use a squirrel cage blower but I would like to have something I can work with when there is no electricity
teaching myself to weld with a little project. Haven't gotten the hang of it yet (FCAW because cheap and just a DIYer) and it's mostly horribly ugly but solid enough. So far this is the only bead I'm not completely ashamed of.
>>1880348Lmao that's better then my welds
>>1880361the rest of mine would make you feel better, trust me
>>1880311Are you able to get into forgeweld temperatures with charcoal or you need coal for that?
>>1880368I doubt it but let's see :)
>>1879940Great someone with materials science knowledge. I did the bio and chem track in college but I discovered my love of materials afterwards.Say I wanted to do a thermite reaction, the iron formed would be pretty pure, fairly similar to wrought, correct? At that point after isolating it from the aluminum by using differing densities I could add in a crucible raw materials to generate custom steel on a small scale. Would that be feasible considering inefficienies and absorption timesI did a bloomery furnace but that's ultimately too much work for a meh product.
>>1880380 Charcoal can easily reach forge weld temps and often has more BTUs than some types of coal plus it's pure carbon. Coal often has other things in it like sulpher which isn't good to get into your steel. You can get around this a bit by using anthracite coal vs bituminous coal which Is basically charcoal. the reason people use bituminous coal is because it's more abundant and those impurities give it a bit more stickiness that let it form caves and allow you to manage the fire better
>>1880487Apart from the fact that 'wrought iron' is a pretty broad term, yeah, you would be provided with fairly pure molten iron, and in theory you could add alloying elements to get a steel alloy, correct. However, the problems here are that the aluminothermic reaction is incredibly violent, so obtaining a significant amount of iron that way would be pretty dangerous imo. Another problem is with scale, a relatively small amount of liquid iron will cool and solidify much more rapidly then a large amount, especially when comparatively cool allyoing elements are being introduced into the melt. So you should definetely keep the layer of slag on top of the iron as it provides great insulation, and you should also look into methods of supplying additional thermal energy to keep the iron hot enough to add meaningful quantities of other elements
>>1880380Yes I've had steel melt couple of times
>>1880381beholdi deliberately planned it to be way overbuilt for the loads it'll be carrying, so as long as a couple of the welds on each joint? are moderately adequate it'll do its job. And I have no idea if I'm using the term 'joint' properly.