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The thread where you ask all your welding, blacksmithing and what ever questions related to metal.

>forge vs torch
>what is the difference between high and low carbon steel
>where can I get a cheap "anvil"
>How to improve my welding
>how to get rid of rust

And much more questions
:)
>>
>>1871500
I've watched Andrew Camarata use his MIG welder and it looks super easy and effective. It's a Millermatic 251 that runs about 3000 bucks for the newer model, which is out of my range.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuUrPHy6At8

What's the lowest cost MIG that is good for occasional use and performs something like his Miller, and what gas would I use for "ordinary" steel welding?
>>
>>1871503
how are you this stupid
what the fuck do you need gas welding for if you don't know what argon is.
for fucksake GTAW was originally called heliarc for a reason
do you not even look shit up?
>>
>>1871503
I'm not big into welding I've done it like 10 hours but I have a friend that's is big on the craft.
A tip he told me is that if you want to have a gas metal arc welding you shouldn't go cheap because a bad one can have lots of problems and will not last you many years.
He told me that if I dont have money to buy that it would be a safe bet to get a
stick welder Because they are generally cheaper and will last you longer and
>>
>>1871506
somebody mad
>>
>>1871500
Were can I get anvil shaped objects?
Guy in the video had some solid advice but I'm not near any factory or metal shop

Should I just bite it and buy an anvil?
https://youtu.be/SHWd0bMVSOU
>>
>>1871500
I’m going to begin sand casting iron parts. What’s the recommended way to protect from rust, oil based paint? Surfaces that must be flat and smooth will just have to be continuously oiled?
>>
>>1871500
Dubs checked.
What is the difference between high and low carbon steels?
Where can I get the cheapest anvil?
>>
>>1871503
For occasional use you really should just do stick. Takes some practice, but it's infinitely versatile
>>1871519
Just go to harbor freight and get their $30 anvil
>>
>>1871751
Low carbon is softer and more flexible and high carbon is harder and more brittle (and also more expensive and harder to work with(blacksmithing))
If you want short shit like knifes you should aim to higer carbon for better edge and harder core but if you want flexible and long shit you should find a middle ground or even combine different steel in different areas of your work depends on your work purpose
>>
>>1871646
Do you have to cast iron?
In general casting iron is a lot harder and in general not as good as castings bronze or copper or whatever. (Which also rust a lot slower and keeps better condition then iron)

What are you making?
>>
>>1871855
This
Stick master race
>>
>>1871859
And any ideas about where to get cheap anvils?
>>
>>1871860
Gingery lathe. Iron is superior for its vibration dampening and mass for this application, I believe. Plus scrap iron if the quantities I need are much easier and cheaper to come by (correct me if I’m wrong)
>>
>>1871907
Unfortunately it's a hard problems to face and it's going to be mostly luck
>>1871855 gave a solid advice
And you can always try to find anvil shaped objects like the guy in the video >>1871519 linked

You can always try scrap yards or Garage Sales but then agin it will come to luck
>>
>>1871859
Also they heat in a little different way but it's never much of a deal breaker
>>
>>1871950
Ah
Then you caoxidi sacrificial coatings with aluminum or zinc which oxidize sacrificially to ensure the protected element remains corrosion free.

Or you can just paint it evry 3-5 months depending on the condition
>>
>>1872082
Then you can use*
>>
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Pretty sure next time I get into the town where the PA is I'm picking one of these up, as long as I can test it and it doesn't seem completely unhardened like apparently some of them are.
Been using a combination of a sledgehammer head set in a post and a mostly flat chunk of soft iron and I'm tired of not knowing whether my fuckups are because of equipment or ability.
I've been keeping an eye out for more than a year and at least in this area mid sized anvils go for >5 leafbucks a pound even in shitty condition and I've given up on the dream of some old lady who just wants it gone asking 50$ as long as I pick it up.
>>
>>1871500
Ok, the question I have asked a few times before but no one has been able to answer. When dealing with laminated steels (steel on wrought iron) will I have any issues with annealing and bending it? Any risks regarding the different metals bending differently and on cracking or the lamination sperating? Can I just toss them in a bon fire as I do with old files to anneal? I assume it will work just fine, but have been able to find nothing regarding this. I have a couple old laminated plane irons in odd sizes that I would like to use to cut up and form into more useful tools.
>>
>>1872084
110 Ib seems solid for an anvil and 330 isn't that bad
But Like you said when you get there be sure to test it out or at least search for reviews of it, some people I know had bad experience with cast anvil so IDK

In any why before you buy an anvil check
https://blacksmithcode.com/anvil-price-guide/
They have some solid advices
>>
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>>1872085
I have little experience with laminated steels but I know that different parts of what you make will act and bend at least a little different
Like with swords that have a hard blade to cut better and a softer body so it won't break or over bend
Read Wikipedia IDK https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laminated_steel_blade?wprov=sfla1

What do you want to make btw?
>>
>>1871907
movie theaters
>>
>>1872091
I will just be making some wood working tools, they are nothing that needs laminated steel, but I have these plane irons sitting about and two are odd sizes so more work to sell than it is worth and ones has some major damage that makes it not worth fixing up, so might as well cut them up and make something more useful from them.
>>
https://www.harborfreight.com/15-lb-rugged-cast-iron-anvil-69425.html

Op get one of these. It's solid for starting out and if you find you like iron work you can get a bigger better one, if you don't. It's only $20
>>
>>1872179
True 20$ is really cheap but iron cast anvils are not very good.
I'm not a total beginner I'm doing this for 6 months in a shop a really nice man rant for people who want to use his stuff and his experience
Only problem it's 70 dollars for 3 hours so I'm thinking of making my own space.
>>
>>1872091
i dont get why youd need different metal hardnesses throughout an anvil. why cant just have it uniform?
>>
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GUYS I DID MY FIRST PAID WELDING JOB! My buddy needed his exhaust manifold repaired and he paid me $25 to do it for him. The metal was a bit dirty so I had to keep tacking it, but it feels strong and when I blew air through it, I didn't feel any leaks at my welds. Any tips on tidying it up? I have to get it back to him Monday and I want it to look a little better before I paint.
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>>1872699
The best way to smooth it is by forging it with a hammer
>>
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>>1872699
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>>1872699
25$ worth of grinding wheels
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>>1872699
Post a before pic.
>>
>>1871500
what order of operations to avoid warpage when making 90 degree when welding?
>>
>>1873554
What do you mean by 90 degree welding? A fillet weld, outside corner, flat stock at a 90, tubing at a 90?

This is how I deal with it and it's worked well.

With fillet welds and corners butt the pieces together and clamp them. Then tack the corner at both ends. If it's thin sheet, I'll tack about a 1/4" in from the end of the fillet/corner instead of on the end to prevent blowing out the corner. If it's a long joint, I add a small tack every few inches.

For corners of flat stock and tube I set up with about a 1mm gap between the pieces. Then tack the outside corner, it'll pull the gap closed, check that the joint is still square and tack the inside. If there is still a gap at the inside but the angle is square, open the angle to open the gap just a hair and then tack the inside. You want to increase the gap just enough to account for how much the tack will pull it closed. I use TIG so I've got a lot of control and can put down very fine tack welds with little to no filler. If a joint pulls together too tight and isn't square I can easily grind the tack out in just a second. A friend of mine who MIG welds feeds out about a half inch of filler wire, turn off the wire feed and just taps the filler on the joint for tacks. Square and round tube gets a little more complicated but the basics still apply and the rest is just something you learn with experience.

The key things are to control your heat and account for movement and shrinkage (never go on a first date on a cold day). If you're welding a long piece either use a copper or aluminum heatsink as a backer or stitch weld (if allowed) coming in from opposite sides giving the metal time to cool a bit. Move faster as you weld so the heat in the metal is more uniform. The metal at the start of a seam weld is a lot cooler than the metal at the end.
>>
Why can't I weld in corners? I make perfect beads flat but when I'm doing like a fillet weld I get slag inclusions all over the place and I don't see what I'm doing wrong
>>
>>1873936
Try adjusting your angle. Pics would help.
>>
>>1871500
Every time I try to forge a blade I create ugly bumps in it
Tips for how I can improve?
>>
>>1875671
get a proper hammer. as heavy as you can handle, and with a rounded striking surface.
The bumps are usually caused by striking at an angle (caused by striking from the arm rather than the wrist, which usually happens with light hammers). You can offest smaller misalignments with a rounded surface, and minimize the chance of them happening by using a heavy hammer that'll almost work itsself, needing only minor corrections from the wrist.
Or go traditional and just align the tool, while an assistant strikes it with a sledgehammer.
If you're to twinky to strike from the wrist with any suitable weight, you can also play around with the height of your anvil until your hammer hits perfectly. In that case though, you'll need to readjust every time you use a different hammer.

Any of the above will reduce the bumps to wide, shallow ones. For getting rid of those, spend some more time fucking (For the americans: fucking is the process of repeatedly jamming the blade into a barrel of coarse grinding sand and water or oil to get rid of these small uneven spots). Fucking is harder to do than grinding or wirebrushing, but it gives a much nicer finish. And if you don't go all the way, the bumps remain just barely visible, giving you that handforged look some people like.
>>
>>1875708
Thank you dude :)
>>
>>1875708
>fucking
>>
Why do so many people have super heavy welding tables?
>>
any welding expert here?!

i'm trying to weld a 4130 steel tube structure, some joints have up to 5 tubes to weld together.

my question is, can i weld 2~3 tubes together then weld the rest another time on the same joint or do i have to weld all 5 together at once?

thank you
>>
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Is there an infograph to arc welding? Especially in regards to welding vertically and upside down? I'm sick of flipping heavy shit 4 times just to get all sides.
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>>1875728
Not my fault americans always think with their dicks. If you can't even watch a sword going into a barrel without lusting for the smiths ass, you've got serious problems.
>>
>>1876316
Kek
>>
>>1875809
What's the thickness of the base material and what filler are you using? How are you planning to preheat and cool it?
>>
What's the difference between SMAW and MMAW? Aren't they both just stick welding?
>>
>>1876822
MMA and SMAW? Same process, as far as I know.
>>
Hey, I'm a 20 something college drop out and want to get into both blacksmithing and welding; blacksmithing as a hobby(if i can do it as a career I would but from what I've heard its not really a professional field anymore as much as it is a hobbyist one although id be really happy if this is wrong) and to do welding as an actual career. I was in a rather good university completing a History and Classical Studies degree but I just couldnt deal with it anymore and wanna try this out instead. Any advice? I'm not exactly sure at all what I have to do and Google isn't exactly helpful. Any kind of information would be useful and insightful, thank you
>>
I finished the basic frame of my first welding table. I'll be wheeling it outside everytime I weld so I want to add casters. I also don't want the table to move so I want to add legs too. Is there a way that will allow me to do both quickly so I can switch between legs and casters? I don't want to have to use leveling screws every time I move it around.
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>>1876972
Bump for this lad
>>
>>1876571
the thikness varies between 0.035 inch and 0.070
a liitle pre heat for safety the filler will be cromo rod 4130
>>
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>>1872084
That's the chinesium anvil.
I have one. It's okay for the price.
They're on eBay, Amazon, probably other places.
>>
>>1872084
>>1877684
The princess auto ones are pretty likely to be the same chinesium ones on the internet so I'd get the cheapest one. If you are worried about the hardness you can try and do it yourself. They even tell you the steel they use to cast it on PA.
However I'm of the opinion that if you start getting into larger anvil sizes it's better to just buy a reputable new/used one vs a cheap chinesium one, it's a tool that will die after your grandkids
>>
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>>1876978
Why not use locking casters?
>>
>>1877707
I keep looking for a better anvil... everyone wants amazing prices on Craigslist. There's one right now for close to $10 / pound.
>>
>>1872699
If someone brought that to me, I would cut the entire section out and weld a patch where the mountain is.
>>
>>1877717
Try looking at rhino anvils they used to have prices on the website but they don't anymore. It used to be 1250 + shipping for their 242 lb anvil and their 142 lb one was about half that. I know you're a leaf but I don't see why you shouldn't be able to buy one.
>>
>>1877709
The ones I have are locking but I don't trust them to stay still, plus I need to be able to adjust the legs sometimes since I want the table to be a little higher for some projects.
I found 2 methods
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R19mwAXKppM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dGNyc1kHAw
Wish I had seen them before because I have a shelf where the mechanisms would be.
>>
>>1877013
If the welds are right next to each other I would take the time to thoroughly heat the adjoining area and welds along with a decent post weld cool down. Just to make sure the first set of welds aren't compromised. If they're a couple inches apart I would just weld it as usual. I've only welded 4130 with ER80S though and, as you know, it's much more forgiving.
>>
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Test hello
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>>1875708
>carbon
Just wanted to say that your tips really helped me today bro thank you
>>
>>1877957
Man I need sleep why the fuck did I copy pasted >carbon
>>
What are some uses for an anvil for a non blacksmith homeowner jackoff?
>>
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New machine, ceremonial cart build
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>>1878205
Decent enough on the 3rd pass, I've used one of these Millers before though. I run it a little hotter than the recommended settings on the autoset. It was around 100f today so I was putting on my jacket and welding like the tasmanian devil for about 3 minutes at a time before I had to go inside and sit in front of the AC.
>>
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>>1878208
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>>1878209
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>>1878213
Out of focus but it is indeed level somehow.
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>>1878214
The motor of the dry cut saw hits the upright so I'll have to move the angle pieces on the base forwards a bit.
>>
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>>1878215
Will use it for a bit and if I don't want to change anything will strip it down and paint.

Thought I'd share why I did not get the multimatic even though it's only $300 more, maybe other people are also looking into a MIG only vs multiprocess. On top of the $300, it's around $500 for the rest of the TIG equipment, and it's a DC only TIG. I would also have had to get a second bottle of pure argon since I would mostly use DC TIG for stainless. I will end up getting an AC/DC TIG as a standalone, but even if you only need a DC TIG, it's not that much more to get a Maxstar DC TIG and then not have to swap a bunch of controls and the tank all the time.
>>
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>>1871503
I'd lean toward stick but then you'd be cutting out alot of stuff like exhaust welding, sheet metal work, or if you have a bigger project with alot of welding, you'll fucking hate yourself for going with stick, especially when you have to tack something that's not clamped down, like if you're doing a larger project on the shop floor.

Ordinary steel MIG welding you'd want a gas mix of 75/25 argon/co2. The co2 is there for penetration. So anything thicker than 3/32" you'd want to use that on. If you're doing sheet metal work then 100% argon is the way to go. It doesn't penetrate as much and sort of 'floats' the weld on the surface, which will reduce blowing out your weld joint.

If you're working on a limited budget(which you didn't specify) I'd go with a cheapo lincoln electric MIG that's gas capable. Flux core MIG(gasless) has it's place but it's mostly shit to weld with. They can be had in the $300-400 range. You'll just be running into it's puny duty cycle ALOT. Look up what a duty cycle on a welder is. And also gas bottles are expensive($200-$400 depending on size), but refills are cheap($5-$20 depending on size). Sorry, But a MIG on the level you specified 'for cheap' doesn't really exist. My miller 212 does just fine for everything i need though, and it's about $900 cheaper.

and most important of all, remember you can weld anything with the puniest welder as long as you have enough bevels.
>>
>>1871519
A piece of railroad rail is actually pretty decent as an anvil. It's made out of manganese steel and has already been work hardened to hell and back. You can even take an angle grinder to it to make it your own.

Plus sometimes you can get them for free.
>>
>>1871508
candleman strikes again
>>
>>1871503
I bought this when there was a coupon available cost me $350
https://www.harborfreight.com/mig-140-professional-welder-with-120-volt-input-64804.html
paid $100 for a small used argon/co2 tank at the local welding supply store, costs $30 per refill
the entire setup cost me around 600-700 and it works pretty alright. The ground clamp is annoying because finding somewhere to attach it to is a nightmare sometimes
>>
>>1878238
True. I built a heavy duty stand for a friend of mine to hold a 40" length and a vice earlier this summer. It's heavy duty stuff. His anvils are mounted on massive oak tree trunks. He does black smithing and fine jewelry but, oddly, doesn't weld.
>>
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My first welding table, only using material I had laying around that I got for free. The extendable legs are a little wonky since the threaded rod has a little play in it and I'm not sure how to tackle that issue.
I still need a top and feet plates. I originally wanted to have a tray/draw under the top but I ran into a problem with the extendable part where the square tubing wouldn't fit into the other square tubing. Wasn't a big deal since it meant more welding practice but now I can't add a tray the same way I intended without cutting into the storage shelf underneath. Any ideas on how to do it?

Anyone from Melb? Will I get done going to the steal yard now? I don't have a sheet for the top laying around.
>>
>>1878205
Nice dude
>>
>>1871500
evolution tools cold cut 14 inch chop saw vs harbor freight 1 HP 4 in. x 6 in. Horizontal/Vertical Metal Cutting Band Saw. for angle cuts and shit.
>>
>>1871500
stonks
>>
Question, is it possible to make a coal forge with an aluminum tabletop? Would the radiant heat be enough to melt it? If not how thick would you have to make it
>>
>>1871500
>>
>>1871500
>how to get rid of rust
Electrolosys
>>
>>1878574
is rust bad or is protective i am so confused on rust.
>>
>>1878544
I wouldn't unless there is an insulating layer. Aluminum melts at 1200 or so degrees F, which is like an orange heat in iron and steel. Even with most of the heat going up, that seems to be an unacceptable risk when it means a possibility of molten aluminum and flaming coals spilling everywhere. With insulation (even just dirt) it would be fine. There's a whole family of forges that is called "Just a box of dirt". The said box is usually wood.


>>1878581
Depends. Scale can be a sponge for wax/oil, but you usually want it relatively thin and non-crumbly. Scale/rust on iron or steel is is permeable to water and air though, so on it's own it won't protect anything.

On other metals, like aluminum, copper, titanium, etc, the oxide layer will in fact protect from corrosion. They form a uniform and unbroken layer that prevents the base metal underneath from being reacted with. Titanium even stays shiny.
>>
Is there a way to get the effect of cold-bluing on largeish pieces without just using gun bluing? Doing a table support out of structural steel tubing and don't need much of a protective finish, just like the look.
Or am I just being dumb and should just go with a spray-on protective paint?
>>
>>1878767
Clean it up, gunblue then spray laquer. Or just wire brush if you can get it consistant
>>
>>1878771
Yeah that was the idea, just annoyed by the quantities of gunblue that might be involved to coat ~25ft of 1" square tubing. Wire brush -> gunblue till I get the look I want -> lacquer is probably the best bet. The 'rustic' look you get from slightly inconsistent bluing is what I'm going for.
>>
Is steel wire good for making knives or something else?
I have some 3 feet of scrap that I picked up from the street a while ago.
>>
>>1878298
Bump for this.
>>
Friend just got laid off at his job as a welder. NY area. was thinking of learning the trade and possibly apprenticing. is it worth it?
>>
>>1878805
The problem with twisted or braided wire is the quantity of contaminates. With fresh cable you'll be dealing with some scale and a fair amount of oil. With old wire you'll be adding a fair amount of rust and who knows what else to the equation. I wouldn't use old cable for anything other than belt buckles or something ornate.
>>
>>1878836
>Friend just got laid off at his job
>was thinking of learning the trade... is it worth it?

Uh...

Yes, it's a trade that will never go away. But if your friend got laid off and if he has any trouble finding another job then plan on moving somewhere else, like the Dakota's, if you want to make good money... Especially if you're unskilled.
>>
>>1878836
can't answer on whether it'll be worth it for employment, but if you've got a welder friend with time to kill at least get him to teach you the basics. It's a worthwhile skill to have even if you don't plan on pursuing it as a job.
>>
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Is there another guide like this with more information on angles, working up/down/upsidedown, and order?
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>>1878860
I found this, seems to require a lot of expensive tools I do not have.
Well I guess the answer is you CAN do things with it, just not easy or important things.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-szM0eB_sRA
>>
>>1879130
and it can be that pretty and not hold an edge worth shit if the steel you start with isn't good.
>>
>>1878232
>sheet metal work
We used nothing but stick for structural metal stud work down to 18 gauge. My pop could weld 20g. Only recently have they started using MIG. Stick work just fine for sheet metal if you can actually weld.
>>
>>1878836
>was thinking of learning the trade and possibly apprenticing. is it worth it?
If you are a union or pipe welder or certified underwater then yes. If you are a production welder then no. In the vast majority of the country welders make absolute shit money.
>t.TIG welder

I made Caterpillars and I can tell you the pay absolutely fucking sucks and that Caterpillar is fucking garbage and you should never buy anything Caterpillar or John Deere.
>>
>>1879007
That's memey and not entirely accurate. If you run hotter you move faster. Welds look different if you weld on Pulse. Most MIG is a drag method and you're never going to stack nickels like that. Stick and TIG are entirely different animals than MIG and the welds usually look a lot different.
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>>1879408
I thought it was a stick guide since following the advice has made my beads improve a lot.
Do you have a better infograph to follow for stick?
>>
>>1878544
>>1878715
My forge is made of wood, it just has dirt and firebricks between the fire and the wood
It works
>>
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>>1879568
pic
>>
I know blacksmithing is an art all it's own, but if I want to make suits of armor as a hobby how far could casting the metal in homemade molds take me? Of course I'd have to learn some welding too.
>>
>>1879571
>how far could casting the metal in homemade molds take me

This is a good place to begin, anon. Much of the best medieval armor was made of cast iron. The process of making a cast to fit a specific knight's body was difficult and dangerous, so use care anon.
>>
>>1879582
Cast iron is an alloy with at least 2% carbon. Not many people at the time actually knew how to get a furnace hot enough to melt iron/steel and with plate armor having about a 2mm thickness means they would need even higher temperatures than what they were capable of to get it to flow through the mold all the way.
>>
>>1879582
You are fucking retarded don't give tips about a subject you dont know

>blacksmith and armor lover
with yeara of research about the field
>>
>>1879638
This and also cast iron is very brutal which isn't good for armor that need to absorb impact from heavy pole weapons and even bullets from early fire arms.

Here is a very cool Armor Smith with a lot of videos about the making of armor
It's modern armor Smithing but it will give you the idea
https://www.youtube.com/c/ArmorySmithWorkshop
>>
>>1879668
Relevant video
https://youtu.be/6BozzBXBWsM
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>>1879571
Casting is very bad for armor Smithing unless you work with bronze and even then you probably wouldn't be able to make the type of armor you want

Armor Smithing is a very long, complete and different then what most people think

https://youtu.be/aDSNezeW09U
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>>1876972
>if i can do it as a career I would but from what I've heard its not really a professional field anymore
You've heard wrong. Blacksmiths specialising in decorations (stuff like fences, railings and window grates) still make quite a bit. There are also a few weaponsmiths that can live of their job, though that's obviously a field with much competition.
>Advice
I'm not exactly a good smith (Only did some knives, swords and armor), so take this with a grain of salt.
But to start, you can take literally any steel, a bbq grill with a hairdryer, any hammer and any massive metal object. Then play around with it until you get a feel for the metal. Especially at which colors you can start forming it, and when it'll start burning up - I'd even recommend deliberately burning a file or something similiar once, so it won't happen on a project you'Ve already put hours into.
Then do simple stuff. Knives are good (though hardening is a bit complicated). Classic artistic practice pieces would be things like leaves and fishes (all in 2D), then coathangers (2D, then bent) and finally true 3D objects like doorknobs, curtain weights and the like.

>Google isn't exactly helpful
https://www.anvilfire.com/index.php
This site helped me quite a bit when I got started.
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>>1878118
Putting it into your garden to rust. There are far to many faggots doing this.
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>>1879582
>Much of the best medieval armor was made of cast iron
Bullshit. Medieval armor was mostly hardened steel. Cast iron and unhardened steel give very little protection against arrows or spears at any reasonable thickness, while hardened steel plate will even stop FMJs, and massively slow down Bodkins or crossbow bolts.
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>>1871500
It fall at the same speed.
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>>1879569
Here’s mine
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>>1879735
No you don't. That's only the case if there's a vacuum pulling you both faster than the anvil falls and there's no other factors coming into play.
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>>1879569
>>1879746
I work in a studio with a gas forge in a metal shell
I always wonder how well bricks do the job
What is your experience with them?
>>
Ferrous metallurgist here, ama
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>>1872435
shock absorption vs how flat and true the face will stay
>>
any tips to create a forge for the first time?

my family have a cabin in the mountains and me my dad and uncles all share an interest in smithing and I think it'd be a good addition to our trips up there but i dont know where to start exactly.

mainly how do I create a reliable stream of air to the fuel without jury rigging a shop vac. or should I just do propane and fire bricks?
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>>1878784
Would automotive enamel clear coat stick to blued steel? Got a couple cans left over, waste not want not.
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>>1879758
My experience is that they are awesome and you can rearrange them however you want so you can put in it any shape you want and can spare on the fuel, but you have to learn to manage the fire
I use exclusively charcoal because that's what is available to me, if I get me some coal I'll try that too. Charcoal is a bitch because unless it's in decent sized lumps you will have a bad fire, and after a while all the ash will start flying everywhere so you have to stop and clean the forge and light it again
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>>1879746
Noice, mine is a side blower with a water cooled tuyere. I use a squirrel cage blower but I would like to have something I can work with when there is no electricity
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teaching myself to weld with a little project. Haven't gotten the hang of it yet (FCAW because cheap and just a DIYer) and it's mostly horribly ugly but solid enough. So far this is the only bead I'm not completely ashamed of.
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>>1880348
Lmao that's better then my welds
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>>1880361
the rest of mine would make you feel better, trust me
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>>1880311
Are you able to get into forgeweld temperatures with charcoal or you need coal for that?
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>>1880368
I doubt it but let's see :)
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>>1879940
Great someone with materials science knowledge. I did the bio and chem track in college but I discovered my love of materials afterwards.
Say I wanted to do a thermite reaction, the iron formed would be pretty pure, fairly similar to wrought, correct? At that point after isolating it from the aluminum by using differing densities I could add in a crucible raw materials to generate custom steel on a small scale. Would that be feasible considering inefficienies and absorption times
I did a bloomery furnace but that's ultimately too much work for a meh product.
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>>1880380
Charcoal can easily reach forge weld temps and often has more BTUs than some types of coal plus it's pure carbon. Coal often has other things in it like sulpher which isn't good to get into your steel. You can get around this a bit by using anthracite coal vs bituminous coal which Is basically charcoal. the reason people use bituminous coal is because it's more abundant and those impurities give it a bit more stickiness that let it form caves and allow you to manage the fire better
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>>1880487
Apart from the fact that 'wrought iron' is a pretty broad term, yeah, you would be provided with fairly pure molten iron, and in theory you could add alloying elements to get a steel alloy, correct.
However, the problems here are that the aluminothermic reaction is incredibly violent, so obtaining a significant amount of iron that way would be pretty dangerous imo. Another problem is with scale, a relatively small amount of liquid iron will cool and solidify much more rapidly then a large amount, especially when comparatively cool allyoing elements are being introduced into the melt. So you should definetely keep the layer of slag on top of the iron as it provides great insulation, and you should also look into methods of supplying additional thermal energy to keep the iron hot enough to add meaningful quantities of other elements
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>>1880380
Yes I've had steel melt couple of times
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>>1880381
behold
i deliberately planned it to be way overbuilt for the loads it'll be carrying, so as long as a couple of the welds on each joint? are moderately adequate it'll do its job. And I have no idea if I'm using the term 'joint' properly.
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>>1880348
I've done worse, much worse. I suck at FCAW and GMAW. Which is fine by me, I prefer GTAW over everything else anyway.
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>>1880630
top stuff m8
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>>1880643
Yeah, I just have a babby's first 125A fluxcore-only welder, and it took me a few tries to get the settings dialed in to where I wasn't overpenetrating.
Good enough for making furniture out of 16ga 1" square tube, though.
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>>1880650
I suck at at wire fed methods. Looks like you need to work on wire and travel speed. Increasing the voltage just a little will help with the penetration. Don't build up with a single pass, you're just going to end up with a superficial weld, a bead that's just sitting on top of the base material with very poor penetration and very likely to fail. I'm sure you'll have it down in no time. It's not critical with FCAW, but when starting out clean your metal thoroughly, grind off and rust and mill scale so you're sure any inconsistencies aren't with the base metal.

One of my practice pieces from a couple months ago. I started around February. Cheap ass Chinese TIG setup, but I've welded 1/4" plate with no issue on 220v.
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>>1880656
Nice. I'm still getting the hang of it, but quickly figured out that multiple passes was the way to go.
might just have been a lucky batch but the tubing I got from steelsupplylp.com was very clean, just had to wire brush off the protective grease. Gotta say I like the company, even with shipping (as long as you get it pre-cut to UPSable lengths) it came out cheaper than I was able to find in town, and my parents live in Houston so whenever my dad comes to visit I'm gonna place an order for him to pick up and bring over. They did very consistent cuts too.
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>>1880505
I was thinking of using twin carbon arcing with my welder to heat it up so I don't have to use much in the way of consumables, probably the cheapest and fastest way to heat shit up I can think of
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>>1871500
Do you guys have a paste bin with Ironworking FAQ's or resources?
I'm a newbie who's questions are probably all things that have been asked a million times.
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>>1880630
Yikes!

I spend half the day figuring out how to to be flashed by my partner while I grind. Curtains are too expensive for my Jew overlords.
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>>1880630
finished the welding on my first ever project. Still needs to be cleaned up, but seems pretty solid. Just gonna top it with some stained edge glued panel for a tabletop, and it'll be supporting a stack of 2 or 3 reptile vivariums (few hundred pounds tops).
I have a can of rust-o-leum automotive clear coat I plan to use to give it some protection - the rat rod community does clear-on-bare metal occasionally and it gives minor protection outdoors, so I figure it'll be good enough for something that'll be in a climate controlled living area.
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>>1880630
i dont think ur machine is setup right anon :s
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>>1881479
for those it wasn't, i fixed it for the later welds like >>1880348 and went back over the worst of them after some grinding.
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>>1881408
Not bad. I'd add some small gussets and a leg in the center.
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>>1871500
Is the best place to find a power hammer at farm auctions or estate sales? Wanna get something small 25-50lbs
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Started on this last night. 3" intake running from my supercharger to an air filter ahead of the radiator.
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>>1881668
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>>1881653
Probably auctions. Not a whole lot of these entered the private market so you are more likely to see them in business liquidations.
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>>1881668
Could you post some details for us non-welders who want to learn? Welder model, settings, type of steel, etc.
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>>1879746
I once used Bricks in my Forge to make a furnance for bronce making. Made some Bars from IT.
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>>1881685

I'm not one to offer much in the way of tips with stainless steel. This is my first project with it. It's a rather large undertaking for a first time... Hopefully, by the time I'm done I'll have it down pretty well.

Most of what I've done in the photo is autogenous welding (no filler). It's tough to control as I don't have a foot pedal to vary the heat and no filler to cool the puddle when things get hot. Where there are fine gaps or I can't get the puddle on the two sides to come together I use some .030" 316L filler. The tubing is 304. I'll probably use filler on the rest of this piece and see which I like better and has more consistent penetration. Back purge is about 7cfm.

I've just got a cheap ass Hitbox TIG200A. DC only, no digital amperage readout (which is usually wrong on cheap Chinese units anyway, so fuck it), no pedal control and no pre/postflow. I figured out how to hack it to get adjustable postflow (about .5s to 7s) and I've got a pedal on order to finish my mods to it. I'm running on 220v. I have to say this welder hasn't disappointed me though. I've done some large projects with up to 1/4" plate mild steel with no issues and the duty cycle specified is well underrated.
>>
Do you guys make hand tools?

I mean things like hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches, saws, etc? Or is that more of a machinist thing?
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>>1871500
How do i weld 18 gauge with FCAW?
>move to slow get blowout
>move to fast puddle is gone
the in between this is so small.
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>>1882480

I was advised by several people to go this without filler. I finished up using .030" 316L filler and found it easier to control. I had two problems where I blew through the tube though and the required build up was pretty messy. I'll grind that down and they're both in places where they'll be unseen. Trying to keep a tight arc I dipped the tungsten too often... Ugh.
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>>1878298
Still looking for advice on the tray and adjustable legs being unstable.
Also..
>find frame for a table dumped outside
>decide it will be my first welding table
>finish frame with a top of 1300*650
>go to steel yard to get a sheet for the top
>sheet sizes 1200*600 and 2400*1200
What now?

>>1882901
I made my chip breaker. Does that count? I do want to make a hammer heads though.
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>>1882901
Yea I made my tongs,drawknife, froe,shears and some other shit
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>>1882961
Angle of your gun and arc length are important.
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>>1883189
You need a pedal dude.
Did you hold the torch 90° to the work or did you angle it and push the puddle?
Without a pedal I would have gone with a larger rod to have the ability to cool the puddle better.

How much of that dripped through to the inside that you're going to have to grind out?
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>>1881253
Yeah, thats probably the way to go. Just make sure to have it covered with slag to provide insulation, maybe add some lime to improve fluidity of the melt (pure alumina of the kind that will be the result of aluminothermic reactions is acually pretty sticky at 'lower' temperatures (~1600°C) that you will want to work with here) If you're doing it, it would be amazing if you could post some pics on here, since I kinda wanna try something like that myself
>>
How would I go about getting a post-vice?
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How strong is metal? How much weight would something like that be able to hold?
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>>1883401
"How strong is metal" such a nonsensical question to ask, you might as well ask "how good are books"
As for your picture, it might well hold the weight of an average person
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>>1883401
"How strong is metal"
Nigga what kind of metal
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>>1883310

Yeah, the pedal should be here today. Then I've just got to figure out how to make it work with this welder. No metal dripping on the inside at all nor did it get blown through. The welds ran too hot but not out of control. I did switch up to 1/16” filler after a while. This is my first time with round tube so as I move along my torch angle was getting real bad, I'm getting better about that. I should have bought some mild steel tube to practice torch angle control on. I also need to be more patient with this and give it more time to cool.
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>>1871500
Any good free pdfs on the subject?
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>>1883647
Depending what you want dude

In any way I actually prefer video for that, blacksmithing is something much easier to understand when you see someone doing it in action
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>>1883366
What compounds are added to steel that would impart manganese, vanadium, etc. I'm trying to figure out some common compounds that I could easily acquire to melt into it.
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>>1883508
Alright.

>>1883619
The kind used in the pic, more specifically, the rods.
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Which of these should I go buy for my welding table? They're a lot larger than I need, 1350*700, I don't know if they'll cut the size and cheapen the price but I'm happy to buy the full sheet if it's under $200.
https://melbournesteelsales.com.au/plate/
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>>1883895
You need to understand that you are kind of retarded

You don't just ask hiw strong is a metal
First we cant know what kind of metal it is from the picture especially when it have been painted
2 we dont know the thickness and length of each rod
3 there is more to structure support then just what materials it's made from

This is just a dumb questions brh
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>>1884028
Mild steel, 10mm, you can see the structure.
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Can I expect to make more money than what I’m making now ($19/hr) with an AAS in Welding? I have a BA in Creative Writing and currently work for a soul-crushing office job and I want out. My local CC has a welding program and I’m interested. Is welding the way to go to escape the 8-5 or are there other, more powerful AA/S degrees out there?
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>>1884236
There are other "trades" that will get you better pay. If you can stand it try and get into a medical "trade" for example dental hygienist or radio techs all make over 75k. If you want a blue collar trade you will certainly make way more than 19 an hour and it will be likely faster to get through but you gotta weigh the pros and cons
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>>1884236
>Can I expect to make more money than what I’m making now ($19/hr) with an AAS in Welding?
No. Welding is absolute shit pay anywhere outside of unions. Unless you own your own business. The fact that you're talking a CC and not an apprenticeship tells me that you live in a non union shithole with terrible pay for skilled labor.
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first welding project complete. Coulda done better with the surface but the surface is gonna be completely obscured anyway, only made the attempt for the sake of practice with woodworking and staining. Top is bonded with 2-part epoxy adhesive, and there is a lengthwise piece of tubing in the middle to prevent the wood from bowing in the middle. Tested its strength by standing on it with my fat housemates, rock solid under 700lb. Thanks for the advice earlier in the thread, i'm sure I'll be back for more in later projects.
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>>1884355
I live in California. I was under the impression that you need prior experience before you can even land an apprenticeship gig.
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>>1884368
I like it anon :)
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>>1884368
It looks good. Would destroy my toe against.
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>>1884368
>Tested its strength by standing on it with my fat housemates
>rock solid under 700lb
>Average of 350lbs/158kg between 2 people
Anyway..why is the back brace on top of the other brace instead of the between the legs?
Nice first project though.
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>>1884588
housemates plural, it was 700lbs between myself and 2 fat roommates. I'm also fat, just less so.
And the brace is there because shit will be stored on the floor under the stand, and that particular placement made more sense to me at the time since it was the easy way. Would have been more structurally sound elsewhere while still allowing unimpeded floor space?
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>>1884605
Oh fuck, misread it. I would have put it here if that were the case. You could add a shelf or a draw somewhere for extra storage.
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>>1884607
ah I see what you mean. I guess my thoughts were "more welds at the corner" and "won't need to measure"
And it's gonna be storage bins slid under there, so it's all good as it is. I really made it too aesthetic for its purpose for the sake of practice, it wouldn't look out of place if it was painted plywood on top.
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>>1883984
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>>1883984

Realistically, you're going to either want something cheap and dirty (~2mm) or some hefty plate. The in-between sizes aren't really worth it. They're much more expensive than laying a sheet over some tube, but they're not heavy enough to hold their flatness on their own. 1300x700 isn't a huge table, so it won't be that expensive to use a heavier plate.

See if you can't get a quarter of the 12mm 1200x2400 sheet (1200x600). It'll be a little smaller than what you want, but it'll be plenty solid at that size and not too expensive.
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>>1884638
>They're much more expensive than laying a sheet over some tube
Is it better to buy square tubing than a 3mm sheet? What about 100*10 flat bar?
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>>1884664
>Is it better to buy square tubing than a 3mm sheet?

I would say yes, it is. The big draw of a single, heavy plate is that you can drill holes in it for fixtures, and it can be ground flat for easy, accurate layups. That doesn't work with thin sheets. The only advantage sheet and tubes have is cost and easy transport.

Tubs are at least reasonably rigid on their own, and can be replaced individually if one somehow gets damaged, but it's only really worth considering if you're on a budget/weight constraint and using light tube. Using 3mm square tube for a table top is almost the same amount of steel as the equivalent surface area in 12mm plate, and costs a bit more because it's tube. Odd, special requirements notwithstanding, it doesn't make much sense.

Flat bar is good, but, unless you specifically want slots in the table or want a bit of modularity, it's not going to offer anything over plate. Technically, it would be very slightly less durable, but if you're managing to bend 10mm flat bar on a welding table, you're doing something wrong, either way. Cost should be very similar to a solid plate, so it's kind of up to you on that one.
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>>1884676
Alright, thanks for the info.
>Cost should be very similar to a solid plate
It's a lot less since. The smallest plate at 10mm is 1.2*2.4, $380. Even if they can cut it in half without charging it's $190. 6m*100*10 flat bar is $80. If I buy 2 bars I can butt each piece together and still have the advantage of removing pieces individually and material left over at the cost of more welding practice.
I think flat bar may be the best option. Hopefully they can cut them to length without charging me too much.
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>>1884687
>The smallest plate at 10mm is 1.2*2.4, $380. Even if they can cut it in half without charging it's $190

Like I said, ask what the price would be on a quarter of the 12mm 1.2x2.4 plate. There will probably be a ~$10 cutting fee and a bit of an upcharge (which may just include the cutting fee) since you don't want the whole plate. It should still be well under $200, and is probably going to be the best value for your money.
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>>1883763
Well, the most common way to alloy a steel melt is by ferro-alloys, ferrovanadium for example
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrovanadium
Ferrovanadium in particular is likely going to be the most expensive alloying element, but you really only need a very small amount of it. I'm pretty sure you could get those ferroalloys from alibaba or some local supplier, so that shouldn't be too difficult.
>>1884054
MILD STEEL IS STILL A BROAD FUCKING TERM RETARD
>>
Just reading about welding. Is Fluxcored welding the easiest and most versatile? I've only ever used stick and there seems to be similarities over regular Mig welding and you don't have to be constantly replacing electrodes.
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>>1884696
A quarter is 300*600. That's too small. Even if you meant half, that is too small too at 600*1200(my frame is about 1350*700). I know they don't have a CNC of any sort so I think they'll plasma cut it if they do that. I'll ask anyway. The shit thing is I won't have a plate for my extension like I would if I got 130/100*10.
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>>1884778
i've only ever done fluxcore and it's a bit of a PITA, but way less expensive to get started on than regular MIG. It gets the job done for DIY stuff.
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>>1884940
>PITA
How so? Removing slag?

Which kind of welding is the worst for your lungs? I was born with shitty lungs and I'm a tad concerned but I'm also enjoying welding, even if it's just stick welding.
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>>1884990
Flux core and Stick both absolutely shred even the healthiest of lungs, because the flux in the wire and on the stick is extremely nasty stuff and just smokes up right into your face
Mig and tig use inert gases to shield that arent as immediately carcinogenic (though they have been shown to cause neurological problems)

Do yourself a favor and use a fan to blow the smoke away, and do it outdoors. Dont take smoke directly to your face.
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>>1884992
>Do yourself a favor and use a fan to blow the smoke away
>t.Cant Weld
Yeah man, blow all that shielding away and introduce more oxygen to the welds!
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>>1884995
>he doesn't oxygenate his welds!
laughing__thots.jaypeg
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>>1884990
Removing slag and lots of spatter. Cleaning the slag between layers is an annoyance, and the spatter makes it harder for me to keep a steady hand. But it gets the job done without costing much or taking up much space. If welding was more than an occasional weekend project for me I'd upgrade to a MIG setup with gas tanks, but between the initial investment and taking up more space I'm happy enough with flux core.
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>>1884995
He is stick welding and flux core welding my dude
>>
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I finished my 1st forge build last weekend and managed to hammer out a couple pieces for fun. I'm supplying LP gas at about 10 PSI for all 3 venturi nozzles. The forge takes 20 -30 minutes to warm up before the fire brick is red hot and I'm burning through a 20LB tank in about 4-5 hours. Does anyone have suggestions on how to tune the system to make it more efficient? I recently read that soft fire brick would've made a better insulating liner but the hard brick was free along with 75 percent of the other material. Any other suggestions on additions or modifications are appreciated.
>>
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Half way hot
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How do I make a vise similar to pic related an accessory to my welding table?
>>
>>1885115
Soft brick is insulating. Hard brick isn't really. Soft brick is quite a bit more fragile though. I would still consider eventually replacing with soft brick. An easy step to take is to add some doors. This can be as simple as piling some bricks in the openings when heating stuff. It doesn't have to be air tight. Anything helps a lot. Your could also add a kaowool layer inside your current setup. More the better for insulation but obviously it is better to leave it slightly inefficient than to take up all your usable space. Be sure to get a hardener though for it as it gives off fibers as it is being blasted with flame, which can give you silicosis (or wear a respirator while forging, I know which I'd prefer to do!). Another thing to do to whatever ends up being your final layer is to paint it with an IR reflector like ITC 100 (pricey). It does make a difference. Also, a 20 lb tank is just fairly small for running a forge. I'd get a 100 lb one or several 100 lb tanks (I run just one).
>>
>>1871500
So the floor panel on my Bronco is starting to rust out in the rear - by the wheel well. I assume I need to cut out a square outside the rust and weld a piece of metal back in.

I know there’s a lot of different types of welding, but I’ve never even held a welder before. The only instruction I have is an old laser disc instructional video.

Anyway, what should I look into for welding floor panels and body panels and the like?
>>
>>1885588
I found it cheaper to buy a cheap drill press vise. I ground the powder coating off the bottom .
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>>1884992
>arent as immediately carcinogenic
It still produces welding fumes, though. As far as I know, welding is carcinogenic in general, it's been classified as such since 2017, I think.
That's why I use respiratory protection at all times. Other welders roll their eyes and tell me that I shouldn't use my respirator, since it's harder to breath in it, but they don't understand how bad welding fumes are.
>>
I'm too cheap to drop money on a dedicated welding machine. How thick sort of gauge steel am I looking at being able to put together if I stick weld with a car battery/ jumper cables, and some flux?
I didn't get that Trump coronas bux to drop on a welding unit, this should work without a transformer to fuck around with amps right?
>>
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Are auto darkening helmets a meme?
I got one recently but I can't see shit through it no matter what setting I use especially compared to my normal helmet or even just a shitty hand shield that came with the machine I bought
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>>1885902
Okay..? I already have the vise from woodworking and I want to be able to mount it and remove it when I need to.
>>
>>1886199
Why'd you buy a piece of shit?
My Miller Digital Elite with Clearview is rad. A lot of guys like Speedglas, they make a great piece of kit. Lincoln's are alright too, I almost got a Viking to replace my old school 1st Gen Viking but I don't like the blue style tint they have. It seems like it's in black and white at times and I don't think I can see the peripheral of the weld as clearly as I can with my Miller... despite the Lincoln supposedly having more clarity. From experience with both I prefer the Miller and the Speedglas to the Lincoln. I have heard the ESAB is a good hood too but that rounded fighter pilot lens is ten types of retarded. You can't set it face down without scratching the special snowflake lens. I have also heard the Jackson with True Blue or whatever tech are top tier as well. A guy in my shop has one, I haven't used it personally though.

Even the cheap ass Chinese harbor freight ones will get you by, bit the clarity is absolute shit compared to American or German kit.
>>
>>1885677
Gas shielded mig would be ideal. I prefer Miller welders but Lincoln is fine too. Hobart makes good stuff. Don't have experience with anything else.
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>>1886259
Because I picked it up cheap along with a bunch of other gear from a supply shop that was selling off all its stock after the owner died and no one wanted to keep running it.

I'll check out the ones you mentioned but the main issue I have with the thing is that even on the darkest setting the flash takes up most of my view and I can't see the pool or surrounding metal.
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>>1886259
>>1886272
>NOT GETTING OPTREL.
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Which way will create the least distortion? Are either of these ways the correct method?
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>>1876972
23 yo welder/fabricator. I went the school route, got my associates degree in welding technology. One could teach a monkey to weld if they had enough bananas, but knowing basic electrical, metallurgy, and fabricating techniques is what seperates the hacks from the professionals. That being said you obviously dont need to go to school to be a welder. I just think it really jumpstarts your career. Maybe you could get your foot in the door at a small shop and learn the ropes. A good starting point either way would be to get on youtube and watch some videos from weldingtipsandtricks, and then get your hands on a welder. MIG, TIG, stick, it doesnt matter, just practice.

Heres a weld from not too long ago, this thread needs more weld pics
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>>1886362
#2 my guy, the welds on either side will balance out the stress. They are both correct, depends what youre doing.
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>>1883189
You got some pretty bad argon coverage there, idk what your torch set up is like but id move up to a champagne cup or a gas lens with a #8 cup and a few more CFH's on the argon
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I've been welding for about two years now mostly stick and recently started doing FCAW this is one of my more recent welds, any advice beyond just practice more?
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>>1884778
Stick is the most versatile. Its the cheapest to get into. Theres no moving parts or wire feeds to fuck with. All you need is a power supply, 2 leads, and an electrode
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>>1886545
Thanks. Just wanted to make a relatively flat bar by connecting offcuts. Came out a little bowed but should flatten out when I weld it to the bar it's going to sit on.



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