A unified thread for the discussion of everyone's favorite Mesozoic megafauna and associated paleontological newsPrevious: >>3732098
>>3745363New torvosaurus skeletal
ahemFUCK feathersFUCK protofeathersFUCK the binocular memeFUCK the body fat memeFUCK the warm blood memeFUCK family unitsFUCK stubby legsFUCK paleontological fake newsDINOsaurs not FAGGOsaurs okay?
>>3745363For me its nigerosaurus.
>>3745363If you want to make love to a dino, you are a normal person.
>>3745387>that contrastWonder how it ended up being that different from Hartman's and everyone else's.
>>3745363What makes trex feet so attractive?
Did you guys ever play Turok?
Why did quadruped carnivorous dinosaurs never develop? And conversely, why were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs generally so rare?
>>3745583>quadruped carnivorous dinosaurs never developBipedals were faster?>bipedal herbivorous dinosaursAll Ornithischia were herbivores, most bipedal.
>>3745583>why were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs generally so rare, eh?herbivores have MUCH larger guts. And dinosaurs also swallowed enormous amounts of rock to help grind up plant matter. So they were much heavier all around than carnivores. You can be an extremely heavy biped, but it's usually better to spread that weight oot over 4 limbs instead of 2.
>>3745363>>3745387>>3745390>>3745403>>3745423>>3745455>>3745522>>3745546>>3745549>>3745567>>3745569>>3745583>>3745598>>3745607Why is it so hard for you scum just to make a spontaneous thread why must literally everything have its own general which of course as always will devolve into pointless barely on topic and tired spam that will continue to rot on the board for ever and ever. You want a general go to fucming reddit >>3745607
>>3745512just fuck a bird you coward
>>3745546Because most megalosaurs are pretty lean and people reconstructing Torvosaurus automatically assumed it was exactly like its relatives without examining it. If they would have looked they would've realized that it was an absolute monster with one of if not the thickest femur head ever attributed to a theropod and cube shaped metatarsals.
>>3745583The dinosaur ancestors were bipedal. Many herbivores went back to being quadrupedal, and the predators stayed bipedal. That's just how it happened.
>>3745569Based game. I used to replay the t.rex boss fight over and over
>>3745546At least it doesn't have the comically long head for its body anymore. If you want a serious answer, all megatheropods end up looking the same after attaining large body size because of convergent adaptations for being an elephant sized or heavier predator. That's why most of the freaky looking dinosaurs tend to be smaller.
>>3745569I've been let down by The Isle and Beasts of Bermuda. Path of Titans seems promising but it's probably doing to be stuck in gamedev hell.
Remember when this was hyped
>>3746265its cute but I aint gonna try pronouncing it just call it Amphicoelias again
>>3746162As someone who caught some of the hype for Isle but never ended up playing it, why was it a disappointment?
>>3746381Dev drama, shitty prioritization of game features and failure to deliver on promises
>>3745512bro I don't even care for people anymoreI just wanna dino gf. If I have to break into Ft. Knox to finance it, I fucking will
>American Torvosaurus was larger than European Torvosaurs after all
>>3746505If the more robust "Edmarka" is only synonymous with T. tanneri (aka American Torvosaurus) and not European T. gurneyi, does that mean European Torvosaurus was still a lanklet with an oversized skull like every other run of the mill Megalosaurid?
>>3746507T. rex varies a lot in its build and robusticity and that's only in one species, it's certainly possible
>>3746505Considering europe was an island archipelago with a lower carrying capacity and scarcity of resources during the mesozoic island dwarfism isn't that surprising
>>3746507The virgin european torvosaurus vs the chad american torvosaurus
>>3745403I like sauropelta
I got a dinosaur skateboard today
>>3747403more like Coprosuchus lmao
>>3747422spinosaurus couldn't even swim well
Anyone visit this?
>>3747444 #Spinosaurus could swim, the 3D model they used was before 2020, and the model doesn't even resemble the OG specimen which got bombed in WW2.
Who else watched this?
>>3747495Wasn't that a canadian show?
>>3747495Nah I watched Barney
>>3746510>T. rex became more gracile over time
>>3747635>cute twink-rex Stan>thicc baragirl musclemommy SueThere will be fanart of this pairing
>>3747739Sue is from an older layer and we're not even sure about their sex
>>3747739How can you even tell gender of extinct animal.
>>3747764hip width, baculum, partially intact egg shell inside the fossil
>>3747764Medullary tissue in the bone marrow of one of the Tyrannosaurus fossils found indicates that that particular specimen was a female who was pregnant. Medullary tissue is only formed in female birds when they're ready to lay eggs.
What was the sauropod size limit?
>>3747635self domestication at work
>>3747773>Baculum in dinosaurs
>>3745423What about quill knobs?
>>3747839>the topic was fossils
>>3747818is there a case for two species of tyrannosaurus? (gracile and robust)
>>3746515now i wonder what kind of dinosaurs lived there (in the red square)
>>3745423You forgot the T-Rex with lips meme.
>>3748057No, since Tyrannosaurus in general were more gracile when they were juveniles and eventually got more robust as adults. Tyrannosaurids in general had the same growth bauplan of gracile juvenile to a robust adult.
>>3748397T. rex had lips in almost every depiction except JP. And even in JP the raptors have lips but nobody gives a shit about that. Lips are canon.
>>3748397Lipped rex is based, croc-face rex is cringe
>>3748466>That videoThe music in that one is absolutely kino
>>3748466looks like a negro sucking his teef
are there any active dino/paleontology discords?
>>3748725There are but they're full of trannies and retards
Hello fellow theropods
>>3746556edmarka rex you mean
>>3749155>Torvosaurus got size cucked feels bad
>>3745583Ostriches are one of the fastest land animals on planet, i assume something along these lines happened where bipedal dinosaurs outcompete quadruped predators.
>>3745583Early basal dinosaurs were already bipedal. They eventually became quad to support their weight and their guts.There were also bipedal ornithisicans like psitaccosaurus and pachycephalosaurus stilland there were also theropods which also developed large arms.
Thoughts on omnivorous prosauropods?
>>3750226Imagine if some prosauropods continued to survive, kept to omnivory and grew to larger sizes because of their broader diet. They'd be the mesozoic equivalents of grizzly bears, scaring away smaller dedicated theropod carnivores from their kills.
>>3750226They'd be like giant iguanas
>>3750546pretty giant monitor lizard
>>3750543That carch looks frontloaded
What was the purpose/function of the antorbital fenestra and mandibular fenestra?
>>3750738Are you sure that's why these developed, even in small archosaurs?
>>3750742Archosaurs are still lighter boned than mammals of the same body dimensions iirc
>>3751043Have you heard of abelisauruses?
>>3751071Still waiting on that giant kenyan abelisaur
>>3747782imagine petting her belly
>>3751043There are plenty of mid sized tyrannosaurs. Alioramus, Alectrosaurus Qianzhousaurus, Teratophoneus, Lythronax
>>3751595>have to finish illustrating this fucking dino book by tonight>what the fuck does an allosaurus even look like?>fuck it, I'm tracing godzilla
>>3751130I'd imagine it'd be like stroking a watermelonjust larger, rougher and it breathes
>>3751831>the earliest native americans might have countered terror birds
Did Spino ever meet any mosasaurs?
>>3751831me on the left
>>3752058Come to think of it, why didn't spinosaurus fully commit to the sea like whales and other marine reptiles?
>>3750778Why did theropods have antorbital fenestra while ceratopsians and hadrosaurs etc lost them
>>3752058Probably not any, there is one known freshwater mosasaur but he appeared later and not in the same area as the spino.
>>3752289>>3752290>>3752293Saved, love them.
just how soft would a well-fed trex have been?
>>3752370at most as soft as a well-fed elephant
>>3752370This shit has it's own thread on /co/
>>3752480so glad we're moving away from the 2014 ibrahim knuckledragger
>>3751071Abelasaurids, larger dromaeosaurids, smaller tyrannosaurids, megaraptorids, neovenatorids. There were quite a few mid sized predators
>>3752517I haven't seen a sandnigger cause so much butthurt since Osama Bin Laden
>>3752315Theropods are bipedal and need more weight saving features?
>>3753097Isn't bipedalism itself a weight saving feature?
>>3750226>>3750244>>3750244>>3750348They would be sweet>>3750546That is beautiful.
Look at this dude
>>3753231This dudecute as fuck. Would pet 100%
>>3753231I honestly really like the recent trend to make theropods look rounder and smoother cause it really just makes them look muscular as fuck.
Anyone have eofauna figures?
>>3753231Did theropods have padded feet like cats?
>>3747495holy shit anon, you just brought back memories I never thought I had!
>>3753342I do what I can
>>3752952imagine dinosaurs that lived in dusty and sandy areas could've been photo models for various makeup brands. having gorgeous eyeleashes would've been an evolutionary necessity in many dry areas
>>3752106No idea, but they likely did cross some form of marine areas since spinosaurids were found across Eurasia, Africa, and South America.
>>3753469>they likely did cross some form of marine areas since spinosaurids were found across Eurasia, Africa, and South America.>continents never moved>Triceratops and T. rex just swam across the pacific ocean. Allosaurus and Torvosaurus swam the AtlanticI detect a problem in your education, anon
>>3752370she looks like she smells like play-doh
>>3753438imagine a trex stands before you and it starts demonstratively blinking at you with leashes as long as its teeth
>>3753654>>3753438Bird eyelashes are modified feathers. T. rex did not have feathers so it didn't have eyelashes either.>having gorgeous eyeleashes would've been an evolutionary necessity in many dry areasA lot of animals living in dry areas today manage to do just fine without them.
>>3753698Oh man I remember seeing this picture as a kid. The inflamed neck flabs grossed me out.
>>3753175what happens if you were to boop a trex's snoot?
>>3753724>Can't I take a wizz in peace?
>>3754557Abelisaurs are underrated
>>3753704Is there anything more comfy than old school paleoart?
>>3753275I prefer PNSO
>>3754580old old school paleoart
>>3754785Why is there a chinaman?
>>3754787A lot of their products are made in China
>>3753594There is a proposal that Oxolaia in South America is a Spinosaurus sp. During that time, South America and Africa were already split.
This nigga is pretty cool
>>3755600Was he the first being with autism
>>3755611Have you seen early Amphibians?
>>3755616Amphibians are nothing compared to burgess shale fauna
>>3753438I remember when planet dinosaur gave gigantoraptor feathers but no eyelashes
>>3755788Some nonavian theropods are pretty much indistinguishable from giant flightless birds to a casual viewer
>>3755751>Bahariasaurus and Deltadromeus are probably ceratosaurs of some kind >Chilantaisaurus is likely a more basal avetheropod, something like a neovenatoridRIP giant megaraptorans (for now)
>>3755371If that's the case I don't see why Spinosaurus wouldn't be at home in the shallow seas of the western interior seaway
>>3755856The authors themselves disagree with the results of their phylogenetic analysis but yes, Chilantaisaurus won't end up being closely related to Coelurosaur Megaraptorans in any up to date and well sampled matrix. Though it would have been better if they sampled Siats too. On a less related note, it's interesting to see Rauhut and Pol's version of (Megalosauroidea + Allosauroidea) Carnosauria being acknowledged in other papers though.
>>3745363>everyone'es favorite Mesozoic megafaunaI prefer the sea monsters desu
>>3752955why'd they have lil nubs
>>3755880Weren't giant ichthyosaurs suction feeders like sperm whales?
>>3755894Better question, who would win in a fight between shonisaurus and a sperm whale?
>>3755901why do they have so many ribs?
>>3755611I dunno, but this fucker is definitely on the spectrum.
>>3755923>be a useless retard>should pretty much be extinct>however all competition has died out due to the worst mass extinction even in history >find yourself basically alone in the world>waddle around and fuck like rabbits>make up literally 90% of all vertebrate land fauna as a result
>>3755929>>3755923what hunted them?
>>3755935I like to think they died off after consuming all the scarce resources left.
>>3755949looks like a creature that would be in the background of a star wars movie
>>3755966The late permian and early triassic was covered by vast swarths of deserts like tatooine
>>3755929That shit's crazy to me. Imagine landing on a planet and it's basically barren with no life except for only one species: retarded pig-lizard looking things that roam around aimlessly.Sounds like a No Man's Sky experience.
I’m a noob at Dino stuff and I’m really interested in our true history. I really really wanna know what they looked like. I also really don’t wanna believe that the t rex and other dinosaurs like that had feathers. Also I’m dumb for this but maybe there were trex species with just scales and maybe there were offshoots of them with feathers later on due to evolution of some sort?
>>3756106Forgive my autism writing.
>>3756106>They all had feathers.
>>3756141no.....no....THATS IMPOSSIBLE I refuse to believe it!
>>3745546>>3745387I'm new. What's the difference? And what separated Torvosaurus from other theropod of its time like Allosaurus and Saurophaganax? I always love Torvosaurus since it got a cool name.
>>3756150It was a more primitive/basal form of theropod
>>3756106T-rex is just a solitary fucked case about feather since it evolved from those faggoty feathered small dinos from China. Other big therorpods luckily had a different lineage that ensure its scaleness.
>>3755751Neovenatorids are the closest we'll ever get to Cretaceous Allosaurids, their head to body proportions are the most similar to Allosaurus out of all the Carcharodontosaurians. A giant neovenatorid can be thought of as a Cretaceous version of Saurophaganax or Epanterias.
>>3745546Hartman's Megalosaurus looks more like Randomdino's Torvosaurus than his own Torvosaurus does.
>>3756106The scale/feather dichotomy is more like a gradient. You have reptilian scales and osteoderms to protofeathers and quills all the way to true fluffy feathers.
How come there are no sabertooth dinos
>>3756351Heterodonty is much more common in therapsids and their descendent than in archosaurs. Most archosaurs only have one shape and size of tooth. Mammals have the inbuilt mechanism for tooth differentiation between molars, premolars, canines, ect.
>>3756420Did albertasaurus live to see the K-pg extinction?
>>3756435If wiki is anything to go by they went extinct shortly before- around 68 mill years ago
>>3756440Coincidentally around the same time T. rex started appearing in North America. It's interesting to think about the interactions between the last Albertosaurus and first Tyrannosaurus or immediate ancestral form of Tyrannosaurus. Was the former outcompeted and replaced the same way modern humans replaced Neanderthals? Who knows.
If the Deccan traps hadn't been erupting and causing the dinos to die off would some of them had survived the asteroid?
>>3756460well we have chickens so...
>>3756467Okay non-avian, non-crocodilian dinosaurs then
what would happen if you kiss a dino
>>3756457I wonder if the Asian Tyrannosaurids became as large as T. rex around the time of the K-Pg impact like North American Tyrannosaurids did. The fossil record of large Tyrannosaurids stops a few million years before the end Cretaceous extinction iirc and the latest Asian Tyrannosaurid (Tarbosaurus) is still much smaller than T. rex. Did they stay small or did they increase in body mass and body size shortly before the asteroid like in North America?
>>3756482how much would it hurt
>>3756505if you've ever been bitten by a goose, I would imagine it would hurt that muchif it had teeth than probably on the same level as a house cat or dog
>>3756460It's been a while since i read up on circumstances around the late cretaceous but I was under the impression that dinosaur decline, as well as ptersaurs, pre asteroid was overrated... a great deal of mammals and birds were wiped out as well so I think no matter what happened with the traps we would end up same survivors as OTL
>>3756510Coincedentll I was reading this today on bird linenage k-t extinction and survival... apparently only ground dwelling burrowing birds survived http://nrm.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1275964/FULLTEXT01.pdf
>tfw I didn't discover the best general on this site until todayThe untold hours of top tier Mesozoic discussion I've missed out on...
>>3756510>as OTLWhat does that stand for?
>>3756023I had the same thought, like minded anon. I wonder if they roamed in huge herds thousand strong like the American bison used to, or was it just a ton of smaller herds?
>>3745512>give kids dino toys and shower them in dino media>they end up wanting to bone raptors and t-rexesjust like the hollow earth reptiloid society intended
>>3756501Didn't someone post earlier in the thread about NA trex becoming more gracile over time? Super large rexxes could have been a temporary phenomenon
>>3756533Last time I checked asian tyrannosaurs weren't shrinking. If anything since they're likely to be ancestors of T. rex they actually increased in size
>>3756546Make sense it would be odd if the asian rexxes didn't get any bigger but the N.American ones did... I'm not really families on the topic....
>>3756106The general ancestor for dinosaurs seem to be feathered, with scales being the derived part. Tyrannosauroids ancestrally had feathers, but Rex likely lost them or were with sparse feathers with what skin impressions we have.
>>3755894No, adult Shonisaurus had large,pointed teeth with recent studies. Sperm whales also don't suction feed and have teeth to grab prey.
>>3755371>During that time, South America and Africa were already split.ghost lineage. Many such cases.
>>3756525Considering herds are mostly an anti-predation measure and Lystrosaurus had no significant competitors or predators, I wouldn't be surprised if they just kind of milled about at random.
>>3752480Wait, are they admitting to making things up?
Why did Macronarian sauropods outlast Diplodocoidean sauropods?
>>3756857>>3755929That's so weird, such a strange chapter in our earth's history
>>3757056Any time period post mass die-off is gonna be wierd
>>3757049Apparently Alamosaurus crossed over to North America from South America, there was a land bridge between the two continents before the Cenozoic
>>3757068Does this mean tyrannosaurs could've met abelisaurs?
>>3756580It could've been a situation where there a bunch of similarly sized (4-5 ton) Tyrannosaurid taxon in Maastrichtian Asia while there was only one really large (>6-7 ton) Tyrannosaurid taxon in Maastrichtian North America because T. rex had little competition from other similar sized Tyrannosaurids unlike Tarbosaurus or Zhuchengtyrannus I assume. So T. rex could grow to larger sizes.
>>3757087Zhuchengtyrannus lived a few million years before Tarbosaurus last time I checked
>>3756546No necessarily, T. rex could've been descended from Southern Tyrannosaurs native to North America similar to Lythronax. "Alamotyrannus" is a good candidate for an immediate ancestor to T. rex imo
>>3756517It's never too late to start fren
>>3752058There was a mosasaur in the kem kem
>>3757082me on the bottom
>>3756150Torvosaurus is less sausage shaped in the first picture
>>3756150The new reconstruction is much more heavily built. If you're asking what about it makes it a magalosaur instead of an allosaur, then it comes down to morphology. Normally the phylogenetically informative characters are pretty minute and esoteric, but in the case of Torvosaurus, I think even a layman can tell who its more related to just by eyeballing it.
>>3757195>I think even a layman can tell who its more related to just by eyeballing it.>don't find complete articulated skeleton>assume the parts we find are related to other known animal with complete and articulated skeleton>reconstruct with the missing or disarticulated parts based on the more complete supposed relative>entire taxa look alike because they're all based on one known member>Layman: "See how closely related they are, they all look alike"
>>3757209I was trying to give him a simple comprehensive picture, not get bogged down in the minutiae of reconstructions.
we're dinosaurs really reptiles, or were they their own thing like mammals and birds (I know that they are dinos too) are?also, how sure are we of any of them having fur?
>>3757143hey, you look kinda disabled
>>3757214>not get bogged down in the minutiae of reconstructions.I don't blame you for avoiding the topic, you clearly don't understand it.
This is a better irritator outline to the anon from last thread
>>3757218>Were they reptilesReptiles (and mammals, birds, fish etc) as a group are a fairly arbitrary construction that is supposedly defined by its traits. This works for modern animals, as all modern reptiles share these traits, but when you look into the evolutionary history of all these groups, you find that many of these traits appear and disappear throughout time. Closely related groups may have completely different traits (mosasaurs give live birth while monitor lizards lay eggs) and some distantly related groups have convergent traits (mammals and many dinosaurs are both warm blooded and have filamentous integument). This means that these neat little categories of traits we group animals in are pretty useless, and modern systematics revolves around the idea of evolutionary descent. A group of animals with a single common ancestor is called a clade. Reptiles do not form a good clade because it excludes some descendants (birds) from the group making it paraphyletic and somewhat arbitrary.Tldr the word reptile doesnt really mean anything anymore and is falling out of use with evolutionary biologists/paleontologists.
>>3757229>You clearly don't understand itOh? And what makes you say so? The most inclusive phylogeny ever published on Tetanurae retrieves torvo as sister taxon to megalosaurus. While the paper has had criticism, I haven't seen a single gripe with Megalosaurinae. With the addition of Elvis we have enough bones to aggregate pretty close to the whole and the skull is only missing the top of the nasals, the squamosal some of the quadrate and the mid part of the dentary. I know that the multiple specimens of torvo are different sizes and that leads to some difficulty in its exact proportions, but the thing was clearly a megalosaur. Step off.
>>3757255you didn't post Torvosuaurus, you posted Megalosaurus.and you know zilch about how skull joints worked.You don't understand how the appearance of the skull is changed based on what we think it was related to. If we thought Torvosaurus was an allosaurid we'd change the shape of the skull to look like an allosauruid. I explained this to you and you're still too dim to grasp it.
>>3757218Dinosaurs are closer to both crocodiles and birds than to most of modern reptiles, like lizards and snakes.Crocodiles are a sister group, that retains a lot of ancient traits, and birds are actually one of the dinosaurs groups, similar how humans are a group of mammals.
>>3755856Has anyone restored Chilantaisaurus as a Neoventorid?
>>3757264>and birds are actually one of the dinosaurs groups, similar how humans are a group of mammals.A bit more complicated than that ngl
>Formulas? I just scale using faulty scalebars.
>>3757261I posted megalosaurus for the anon to compare torvo to both allo and meg. If I wanted to get autistic, I would post eustreptospondylus or some other more complete megalosaur. >If we thought Torvosaurus was an allosaurid we'd change the shape of the skull to look like an allosauruidYeah no shit. And if my grandmother had two weeks she'd be a bicycle. But we don't think its an allosaurid because every thing we have points towards it being a megalosaur. Just because some of the proportions of the different specimens leads to some ambiguity surrounding the scale of the skull joints doesn't mean the general shape of almost all the skull bones isn't known. You're trying to imply that there's more ambiguity in Torvo's skull than there is. I get that you're having a bad day, but you either have an informed opinion about Torvo remains that you're holding back and criticizing everyone else for not immediately understanding, or you're just assuming that I just repeat whatever information I see in pictures because I didn't g in depth with a layman and you want an excuse to put me down to feel superior. Either way, you're being a massive asshole for no real reason.
Thoughts on furry synapsids?
Anyone tried one of those roblox dino sims?
>>3757299They need more love in general
>>3757333No meat all bones
>>3756481depends on how well you know each otherif you know each other well, expect either a small smooch, or a big slobbery kiss back if not, don't expect anything interesting. they'll just wonder wtf you did
>>3757270The siats holotype is very similar in size
>>3754585Look at this dude
>>3757359I thought that was a spinosaur but reverse image search gave me qianzhousaurus
>>3747415Hey, that's clever.
>>3757348dilophosaurus is bigger than that
>>3757264Archosaurs aren't reptiles
>>3752299>I think we should get off the road...>>Get off the road! Quick!
>>3757379They are members of class reptilia.
>>3757379are you really going to argue that crocodiles and alligators aren't reptiles
Image an allosaurus sized coelophysis...
>>3757425Big if true. I thought Rauisuchians had a monopoly on the large apex predator niches of that time. Might it be related to Kayentapus?
>>3757424Well there was a small feathered polar trex.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanuqsaurus
>>3757425Source on that?
>>3757427Just looking now, apparently there were a few large Triassic therapods even in the Norian but remained relatively rare until the Triassic.... https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287004648_A_Giant_Coelophysoid_Ceratosauria_Theropod_from_the_Upper_Triassic_of_New_Mexico_USA https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/jpaleontol/article/93/5/1010/573029/large-neotheropods-from-the-upper-triassic-of
>>3757429Animals living in colder climates tend to be stockier and more robust than their counterparts closer to the equator. Would a T. rex sized Nanuqsaurus outweigh an actual Tyrannosaurus rex? Or does Bergmann's rule only apply to Mammals and Birds?
>>3757432Interesting. Guess the Triassic-Jurassic extinction must have wiped out those giant Coelophysoids too.
>>3757438considering birds are dinosaurs...
>>3752318>One knownThere's an undescribed one from hell creek. I think I've heard of more but can't remember its locale
>>3757556not all dinosaurs are birds
>>3757277go back to deviantart
>>3757234Still too short legged imo
>>3757317What exactly are they?